Results-Based Financing (RBF) and Results in Education for All Children (REACH)

Education is one of the surest means we have to end poverty and boost shared prosperity, but much of this potential is lost if students do not acquire the literacy and numeracy in school that they need to succeed in life.

Achieving learning for all children and youth will require moving beyond simply financing the inputs that education systems need, to strengthening these systems to deliver results. This, in turn, implies aligning governance, financing rules, incentives, and management practices with the ultimate goal of better learning outcomes, especially for children from the world’s poorest families—for whom access to quality education remains deeply inequitable. There is growing demand from countries for Results-Based Financing (RBF), which is a promising set of tools to help achieve this critical alignment within education systems.

RBF is an umbrella term that refers to any program that rewards the delivery of one or more outputs or outcomes by one or more incentives, financial or otherwise, upon verification that the agreed-upon result has actually been delivered. Incentives may be directed to ministries, provinces, districts, or service providers such as schools (supply side), program beneficiaries such as students or parents (demand side), or both. It can refer to donor financing, government financing, or both.

The World Bank Group’s level of support for RBF in education has been increasing, following the successful adoption of a related approach in the health sector. This trend has strategic implications in the post-2015 period. RBF could have a substantial impact in terms of achieving results that matter in education, and in helping countries leverage the financial resources needed to achieve the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals agenda.

    The Results in Education for All Children (REACH) program aims to support efforts towards more and better education services, especially to those most excluded, by helping country systems focus more sharply on results.

    REACH’s mission is in line with the World Bank Group’s education sector strategy and the Systems Approach for Better Results (SABER) program, but differentiates itself in its emphasis on building the evidence base specifically around results-based financing in education.

    To achieve this, REACH funds:

    1. Country program grants
      Country program grants are allocated through a closed nomination process. Current recipients are Nepal and Lebanon.
    2. Knowledge, Learning and Innovation (KLI) activities
      KLI grants are allocated through an open, competitive call for proposals.

    To find out about our most recent Call for Proposals click here. Information about our previous Calls for Proposals can be accessed here.

    In addition, REACH generates and shares knowledge around promising RBF approaches and builds the capacity of World Bank Group staff and development partners in designing and implementing results-based projects.

    • To read about what REACH has learned about RBF thus far, see our Strategy Paper.
    • To browse through our blog postings, Quick-and-Dirty Operational Notes series, videos and other materials on RBF related topics, check out our Resources section.
    • To learn more about our upcoming and past events, click here.

    REACH is funded by the Government of Norway through NORAD, the Government of the United States of America through USAID, and by the Government of Germany through the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    REACH hosts various event to (i) build momentum and spread the word about RBF and how it can be used; (ii) bring together individuals working on RBF to share and capture their tacit knowledge; and (iii) train World Bank teams on how to use RBF instruments.

    REACH’s learning and knowledge sharing activities include:

    • Webinar series on RBF in Education
      Series of online events that are designed for larger audiences, both in person and virtual.
    • RBF for Breakfast -series
      Informal morning discussions that bring together key specialists on RBF sub-topics to share operational lessons learned and identify existing knowledge gaps.  
    • Quick-and-Dirty Operational Note –series
      A short note series consisting of summarized conclusions and key points of discussion from past events.  
    • Program for Results (PforR) in Education Training series
      REACH supports regular education sector training courses on how to use the World Bank’s RBF instruments: Program-for-Results (PforRs) and Disbursement linked Indicators (DLIs) in Investment Project Financing (IPF).

    Upcoming events:

    • [Small Group Discussion] RBF for Breakfast: Incentives to Parents and Students | June 2018, exact date TBD | Washington, D.C. | If interested in joining the discussion, please email


    Past Events:


    Information about Webinars related to REACH Calls for Proposals can be found under the Grants page here.

    REACH Trust Fund - Knowledge, Learning and Innovation (KLI) Grants 


    Background Information for Proposals:

    • Call 1: Theme – General/Education Systems (Closed) 
    • Call 2: Theme – General/Education Systems (Closed)
    • Call 3: Theme – REACH for Reading (Closed)
    • Call 4: Theme – Meso-Level of the Education System (Closed)
    • Call 5: Theme – REACH for Reading (Closed)
    • Call 6: Theme – Using Results Based Financing to Improve Literacy and Learning Outcomes (currently open to World Bank staff only)


    REACH for Reading Webinars:


    Current Grantees:

    Strategy Paper

    RBF in Education: Financing Results to Strengthen Systems

    Results-Based Financing Around the World

    The Results-Based Financing (RBF) Around the World series captures the findings and operational knowledge of REACH financed grants. For a full description of grants, please see Current Grantees here.   

    • Tanzania: Experimental Evidence of Designing Teacher Performance Pay Programs
      RBF Around the World note (8 pages) | Full length paper (21 pages)
    • Vietnam: Identifying Reliable Predictors of Learning for Results-Based Financing in Education
      RBF Around the World note (8 pages) | Full length paper (forthcoming)

    Annual Reports

    Results in Education for All Children (REACH): Annual Report 2017

    Results in Education for All Children (REACH): Annual Report 2016

    Results in Education for All Children (REACH): Annual Report 2015


    Results in Education for All Children (REACH): Assessment of the Pilot Year