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  • One billion people, or 15% of the world’s population, experience some form of disability, and disability prevalence is higher for developing countries. One-fifth of the estimated global total, or between 110 million and 190 million people, experience significant disabilities.

    Persons with disabilities are more likely to experience adverse socioeconomic outcomes such as less education, poorer health outcomes, lower levels of employment, and higher poverty rates.

    As COVID-19 continues to have wide-reaching impacts across the globe, it is important to note how persons with disabilities are uniquely impacted by the pandemic, including health, education, and transport considerations.

    In the area of health, many persons with disabilities have additional underlying health needs that make them particularly vulnerable to severe symptoms of COVID-19, if they contract it. Persons with disabilities may also be at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 because information about the disease, including the symptoms and prevention, are not provided in accessible formats such as print materials in Braille, sign language interpretation, captions, audio provision, and graphics.

    With widespread school closures, children with disabilities are lacking access to basic services like meal programs; assistive technologies; access to resource personnel; recreation programs; extracurricular activities; and water, sanitation, and hygiene programs. COVID-19 has led to a sudden shift in the role of the parent/caregiver to act simultaneously as their teachers, in addition to exacerbating the digital divide between learners related to access to equipment, electricity, and the internet.

    As public transport systems reduce or stop services due to COVID-19, persons with disabilities who rely on these methods for accessible transport may not be able to travel, even for basic necessities or critical medical appointments.

    Barriers to full social and economic inclusion of persons with disabilities include inaccessible physical environments and transportation, the unavailability of assistive devices and technologies, non-adapted means of communication, gaps in service delivery, and discriminatory prejudice and stigma in society.

    Poverty may increase the risk of disability through malnutrition, inadequate access to education and health care, unsafe working conditions, a polluted environment, and lack of access to safe water and sanitation. Disability may also increase the risk of poverty, through lack of employment and education opportunities, lower wages, and increased cost of living with a disability.

    Global awareness of disability-inclusive development is increasing. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) promotes the full integration of persons with disabilities in societies. The CRPD specifically references the importance of international development in addressing the rights of persons with disabilities.

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development clearly states that disability cannot be a reason or criteria for lack of access to development programming and the realization of human rights. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) framework includes seven targets, which explicitly refer to persons with disabilities, and six further targets on persons in vulnerable situations, which include persons with disabilities.

    Last Updated: Mar 19, 2021

  • Including persons with disabilities and expanding equitable opportunities are at the core of the World Bank’s work to build sustainable, inclusive communities, aligned with the institution’s goals to end extreme poverty and promote shared prosperity.

    The World Bank integrates disability into development through its analytical work, data, and good-practice policies. The Bank also integrates disability issues into its operations across a wide range of sectors, including promoting access to infrastructure facilities and social services, rehabilitation, skills development, creating economic opportunities, and working with Organizations for Persons with Disabilities, focusing on the most vulnerable among people with disabilities, such as women and children, and influencing policies and institutional development. The Global Disability Advisor’s team serves as a focal point for ongoing advisory and analytical support to operational teams on disability-inclusive approaches in project design and implementation. The World Bank launched its first Disability Inclusion and Accountability Framework in June 2018 to offer a roadmap for:

    1. Including disability in the World Bank’s policies, operations, and analytical work; and
    2. Building internal capacity for supporting clients in implementing disability-inclusive development programs.

    The framework is relevant to policymakers, government officials, other development organizations, and persons with disabilities.

    With the World Bank’s funding commitments to help countries fight COVID-19, there are opportunities to address persons with disabilities and limit the impacts on them both in the short and long term.

    In July 2018, the World Bank Group made ten commitments to accelerate global action for disability-inclusive development in key areas such as education, digital development, data collection, gender, post-disaster reconstruction, transport, private sector investments, and social protection. These are:

    1. Ensuring that all WB-financed education programs and projects are disability-inclusive by 2025.
    2. Ensuring that all WB-financed digital development projects are disability sensitive, including through the use of universal design and accessibility standards.
    3. Scaling up disability data collection and use, guided by global standards and best practices, such as using the Washington Group’s Short Set of Questions on Disability.
    4. Introducing questions on disability into the Women, Business and the Law survey to better understand the economic empowerment of women with disabilities.
    5. Ensuring that all projects financing public facilities in post-disaster reconstruction are disability-inclusive by 2020.
    6. Ensuring that all WB-financed urban mobility and rail projects that support public transport services are disability-inclusive by 2025.
    7. Enhancing due diligence on private sector projects financed by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) regarding disability inclusion.
    8. Ensuring that 75% of WB-financed social protection projects are disability-inclusive by 2025.
    9. Increasing the number of staff with disabilities in the WBG.
    10. Promoting the Disability Inclusion and Accountability Framework among World Bank staff as a way to support the WB’s new Environmental and Social Framework (ESF).

    The World Bank’s Environmental and Social Framework (ESF) includes a strong provision designed to make sure that the interests of persons with disabilities are protected and included, requiring the borrower to look specifically at disability as part of any social assessments.

    The ESF makes several direct references to safeguarding the interests of persons with disabilities and protecting them from unsafe working conditions. It encourages countries to undertake reasonable accommodation measures to adapt the workplace to include workers with disabilities, as well as to provide information in accessible formats. Furthermore, the ESF also requires client countries to undertake meaningful consultations with stakeholders to learn their views on project risks, impacts, and mitigation measures.

    In addition, the World Bank has issued a Directive on addressing project risks and impacts on disadvantaged and vulnerable groups, which also addresses the inclusion of persons with disabilities. The Disability Inclusion and Accountability Framework is aligned with the ESF and will offer a thematic blueprint to support disability-inclusive investments.

    Working with International Development Association

    Disability is a cross-cutting theme in the IDA19 financing package. This represents an important opportunity to ensure the systematic inclusion of persons with disabilities in World Bank projects by way of support to and in the development of services provided to IDA countries. The IDA19 package recognizes disability inclusion as a cross cutting theme and makes explicit reference to disability in six policy commitments.

    Last Updated: Mar 19, 2021

  • Global analysis and good practice:

    Disability Inclusive Education

    • The Inclusive Education Initiative, a multi-donor trust fund with support from the  Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) and the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), is investing in catalytic technical expertise and knowledge resources that support countries in making education progressively inclusive for children across the spectrum of disabilities.
    • The Disability-Inclusive Education in Africa Program, with funding from USAID, is investing in regional diagnostics and programmatic interventions in Ethiopia, Ghana, Lesotho, Liberia, Senegal, The Gambia, and Zambia. The program is building practitioner capacity through technical learning sessions and knowledge products.

    Recent analytical work on disability-inclusive education includes:

    Disability and Development

    Disaster Risk Management

    • Collaboration with the Global Facility for Disaster Response and Recovery (GFDRR) has led to a strategic disability inclusion action plan to guide GFDRR investments and analytical work to be responsive to the needs of persons with disabilities. The action plan is complemented by policy guidance and good practices on addressing the needs of persons with disabilities in disaster risk management projects.
    • As part of the Disaster Recovery Guidance Series, GFDRR and the Disability Inclusion team published the Disability-Inclusive Disaster Recovery note in July 2020. The guidance note provides action-oriented direction for government officials and decisionmakers with responsibility for post-disaster recovery and reconstruction. The guidance will enable the development of disability inclusive planning and programming across sectors and government. In 2019, GFDRR, in consultation with the Social Sustainability and Inclusion Global Practice, developed a Disability-Inclusive Disaster Risk Recovery Guidance Note to provide action-oriented directions for government officials and decisionmakers responsible for post-disaster recovery and reconstruction.·      


    Technology and Innovation


    The World Bank has developed a Guidance Note for staff on promoting disability inclusion and accessibility in water sector operations.Women and Girls with Disabilities

    • The World Bank’s Brief on Violence Against Women and Girls with Disabilities is a part of the Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) Resource Guide series in partnership with Global Women’s Institute at George Washington University and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The brief explains the causes, types, and consequences of violence against women and girls with disabilities and provides recommendations on how to promote constructive and holistic approaches to inclusive policies, more receptive institutions, and aware communities.

    Projects by region:

    South Asia

    East Asia and the Pacific

    • In Indonesia, the PNPM Peduli project works with civil society organizations to reach marginalized groups, and currently includes a pillar on disability that focuses on capacity building and grant financing for disabled people’s organizations (DPOs). The National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (PAMSIMAS AF II) has introduced a disability-inclusive approach into its operations, and focused on institutionalizing disability inclusion in the project cycle and mainstreaming disability in project policies.
    • In Vietnam, persons with disabilities have been identified as specific beneficiaries in the Scaling up Urban Upgrading Project. This disability-inclusive project in several medium-sized cities implements technical standards for accessible infrastructure; universal design in urban environments, roads, schools, and public facilities; and transport accessibility.

    Western and Central Africa

    Eastern and Southern Africa

    Middle East and North Africa

    • In Egypt, the Cairo Airport Terminal 2 Rehabilitation Project supported improved accessibility measures, some of which were included in the final project design. Today, parts of the airport are disability friendly.
    • In Iraq, the Emergency Disabilities Project supported the delivery of improved rehabilitation and prosthetic services for people with disabilities.
    • As part of a Development Policy Loan, the Bank helped the government of Morocco elaborate an action plan on accessibility and urban transport with a specific focus on identifying priority interventions in select major cities and review the construction code to promote accessibility. A national workshop was conducted to engage policy and decision makers at the ministerial level, and the recommendations of the national plan form part of the transport projects and interventions.

    Latin America and the Caribbean

    • In Guyana, the Guyana Education Sector Improvement Project worked with social development specialists to address disability through stakeholder consultations in curriculum reform, teacher training, accessible learning materials, and monitoring indicators.

    Eastern and Central Europe

    • In the Kyrgyz Republic, the Bank supported the creation of community-based infrastructure services (including health clinics and schools), with a focus on accessibility of persons with disabilities.

    Additional projects addressing issues of disability through a social inclusion lens are being implemented in Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Indonesia, Grenada, Lebanon, and Morocco.

    Trust-funded Projects:

    In addition to World Bank financing, the Japan Policy and Human Resources Development Fund financed efforts to mainstream disability in World Bank projects around the world for a total of $23 million, for example:

    • In Jamaica, support was provided for improving services and employment opportunities for people with disabilities.
    • In Moldova, a project supported the improvement of access to education for children with disabilities.
    • In Peru, a project focused on mainstreaming inclusive design and universal mobility in Lima.
    • In Romania, the focus was to improve policymaking and the institutional framework addressing people with disability.
    • In India, the World Bank supported the production of training packages titled “Making Inclusion Work” for master trainers, who will train general education teachers on supporting students with autism, hearing impairments, cerebral palsy, and deafblindness.

    The Inclusive Education Initiative invests in resources for interventions in Nepal, Rwanda and Ethiopia for systems strengthening to support educational achievement of students with disabilities:

    • In Rwanda, we have conducted a comprehensive mapping and review of resource classrooms and assessment centers, along with strengthen Education Management Information System (EMIS), technical assistance, and targeted capacity building.
    • In Nepal, we have financed streamlining for teacher recruitment and deployment, technical assistance to strengthen disability inclusion in ongoing projects, data collection and management, and innovation grants to Disabled People Organizations.
    • In Ethiopia, we have enhanced quality of services under Inclusive Education Resource Centers (IERCs), strengthening Education Management Information System (EMIS), screening and development of inclusive pre-primary program.

    Last Updated: Mar 19, 2021

  • Partnerships play a critical role at the strategic level, by developing policy and institutional frameworks, and at the project level, through joint implementation with civil society and disabled people’s and community-based organizations to promote inclusion of people with disabilities.

    Last Updated: Mar 24, 2021


VIDEO Oct 31, 2020

Jozi Practices Safety in the Classroom


Charlotte McClain-Nhlapo

Global Disability Advisor


Additional Resources