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Population Growth Rate
Complete these exercises with information from Chart 3.

Chart 3 Exercises with Answers


Chart 3.1. Composition of Population in Low- and High-income Economies, 2000

1. Study the information in Chart 3.1 for low- and high-income economies in 2000. Then, answer the following questions about the population trends shown.  

  1. In low-income countries, which age range(s) contained the largest percentage of the population? the lowest? [The highest: under age 30; the lowest: above age 50]
  2. In high-income countries, which age range(s) contained the largest percentage of the population? the lowest? [The highest: between 25 and 50; the lowest: between 55 and 74]
  3. In a brief statement, compare the age composition of the populations for low- and high-income countries for 2000. [In low-income countries, a large percentage of the overall population is under age 30, so the largest portion of the population is either in childbearing years or will soon enter childbearing years. In high-income countries, the largest segments of the population are middle-aged or older, and have either moved beyond childbearing years or will soon do so.]
  4. Considering your answer to question 1c, what type of social programs might be important to meet the future needs of the largest age groups of each country income group? [Possible answers: To help care for and educate a young population, it might be important for low-income countries to invest in health programs for expectant mothers and children, family planning services, education and training programs, and housing. To help care for an aging population, it might be important for high-income countries invest in health services for the elderly, pension plans, and assisted living programs.]  

2. Study the information in Chart 3.2 for low- and high-income economies in 2030. Then, answer the following questions about the population trends shown. 


Chart 3.2. Composition of Population in Low- and High-income Economies, 2030

  1. In low-income countries, which age range(s) contained the largest percentage of the projected population? the lowest? [The highest: below age 39; the lowest: above age 64]
  2. In high-income countries, which age range(s) contained the largest percentage of the projected population? the lowest? [The highest: above age 50, particulary above age 75; the lowest: below age 25]
  3. Compare the age composition of the populations for low- and high-income countries shown in Chart 3.2 with those shown in Chart 3.1. [In the 2030 projections for low-income countries, there is less of a pronounced difference between the old and the young groups than in 2000, but there is still a large percentage of the overall population in childbearing years. The population in low-income countries is stabilizing. In high-income countries, the largest segments of the population have moved beyond childbearing and have entered retirement years. The trends that were in place in 2000 have become more pronounced.]
  4. Compare the gender composition for low- and high-income countries shown in Chart 3.2. with those shown in Chart 3.1. [In 2000, the percentage of men and women is roughly the same in both low- and high-income countries up to age 75 where there is a dramatic increase in the number of women as a percentage of the overall population in high-income economies This same trend continues for men and women in 2030.]

3. Read the definition of population momentum in the glossary. Using Charts 3.1 and 3.2 as a reference, in which economic groups and years do you think this phenomenon exists? Why? [In low-income economies in 2000 and 2030. Because of the youthful age structure which is typical of developing countries in these years, population growth will not stop for several decades.]

4. Look at the shapes of the charts in Charts 3.1 and 3.2. What would a stabilized population look like? Explain. [It would be a rectangle, because the percentage of the population dying would be approximately equal to the percentage of people being born.]

5. What impact might population momentum have on the care of small children in a country where a large proportion of the childcare duties are performed by daycare centers? [Population momentum may cause childcare to become scarce or over-crowded because the size of the population needing the services could outnumber the size of the population able to provide the service.] What about a population where elderly relatives provide childcare? [Again, childcare may be difficult to find since the number of babies is so much greater than the number of older people available to take care of them.] Who are the caretakers of small children in your country? [Answers will vary.] What effect might population momentum have on these arrangements? [Answers will vary.]

6. What impact might an aging population have on the care of elderly people in a country where a large proportion of these people live in nursing homes or elderly housing? [An aging population may cause elderly housing and nursing home care to become scarce because the ever-increasing numbers of elderly people needing the services could grow to outnumber the portion of the population able to provide care.] How are elderly people cared for in your country? [Answers will vary.] What impact might an aging population have on this care? [Answers will vary.]

7. Match each of the following descriptions with the country below that illustrates the trend described.

  1. The death rate is high, the birth rate is high, and there are a large number of children in the population. [Yemen]
  2. There has been a sustained decline in the birth rate, but the proportion of the elderly population has not yet become large. [Korea]
  3. The birth rate has been low for a long period, and the elderly proportion of the population is increasing. [ Italy]

 

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