.... 25 Years of Improvement

Part V. Aquatic Resources

With marine catches stagnating due to full exploitation and overexploitation of commercially important stocks, quickly rising demand can only be met through more rational fisheries management, resource development and aquaculture. The number of currently still underexploited major fish stocks has decreased from30 to 7 over the 1980s, and one in every three major stocks is overfished. Developing countries, whose populations will attain 80 percent of the total worl d population by 2025, will be hardest hit if world fish production declines.

The aquaculture sector, where increased production is most likely to come has made only modest gains in most countries though a few, such as China, India, Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand, have made large gains in the last 10 years. Aquaculture technology, particularly in marine resource systems, lags behind agriculture in development of technologies for farming. Technical advances inaquaculture have the potential to lead to productivity increases similar to those in food crops and livestock, provided due regard is taken of environmental limitations and negative impacts on biodiversity.


The major biotic constraints to aquatic resource production are:

A. The capture fisheries resources are finite and limited; they face depletion (losses from their maximum potential) through these biotic factors:

and through these abiotic factors:

The economic factors which cause overexploitation include:

B. The aquaculture (fish farming) sector has the following biotic constraints:

and these abiotic constraints:

The economic factors constraining aquaculture include:



Biotic constraints:

Overexploitation has been addressed through:

Reduction in biodiversity has been addressed through:

Abiotic constraints:

No impact yet, but ICLARM is developing tools to predict and manage the interaction of land- and water-based activities, such as agriculture and fisheries, respectively, to minimize pollution and habitat destruction.


Biotic constraints:

On the abiotic constraints to aquaculture:

On economic constraints to aquaculture:

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