Today’s urban population of about 3.5 billion people is projected to reach 5 billion by 2030, with two-thirds of the global population living in cities. City leaders must move quickly to plan for growth and provide the basic services, infrastructure, and affordable housing their expanding populations need.
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A survey of 120 cities in China shows
that city-level investment climate varies widely. Business
law and regulation are basically the same throughout China.
Hence, ... Show More +differences mainly reflect local government efforts
(or lack of efforts) to operate efficiently. For instance,
Taxes and fees average 3.1 percent of sales revenue at the
top 10 percentile of cities, versus 6.9 percent at the
bottom 10 percentile. Firm interactions with major
bureaucracies average 36 days/year at the top 10 percentile
of cities and 87 days/year at the bottom 10 percentile. Firm
expenditures on entertainment and travel, which can be a
vehicle for corruption, average 0.7 percent of revenues at
the top 10 percentile of cities and 1.9 percent of revenues
at the bottom 10 percentile. Combined time for customs
clearance of exports and imports averages 5.4 days at the
top 10 percentile and 20.4 days at the bottom 10 percentile.
The survey also finds significant (or noteworthy)
differences in the importance of state-owned enterprises
(SOEs) in local industry; labor over-staffing; firm access
to bank loans; confidence in protection of property and
contract rights; and adequacy of local power and transport.
The prevalence of different types of industry or ownership
in a particular locale seems to have some effect on tax/fee
burdens, bureaucratic behavior, overstaffing, and other
measures of government effectiveness. Show Less -