Today’s urban population of about 3.5 billion people is projected to reach 5 billion by 2030, with two-thirds of the global population living in cities. City leaders must move quickly to plan for growth and provide the basic services, infrastructure, and affordable housing their expanding populations need.
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The authors combine measures of urban
form and public transit supply for 114 urbanized areas with
the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey to
address two ... Show More +questions: (1) How do measures of urban form,
including city shape, road density, the spatial distribution
of population, and jobs-housing balance affect the annual
miles driven and commute mode choices of U.S. households?
(2) How does the supply of public transportation (annual
route miles supplied and availability of transit stops)
affect miles driven and commute mode choice? The authors
find that jobs-housing balance, population centrality, and
rail miles supplied significantly reduce the probability of
driving to work in cities with some rail transit. Population
centrality and jobs-housing balance have a significant
impact on annual household vehicle miles traveled (VMT), as
do city shape, road density, and (in rail cities) annual
rail route miles supplied. The elasticity of VMT with
respect to each variable is small, on the order of 0.10-0.20
in absolute value. However, changing several measures of
form simultaneously can reduce annual VMT significantly.
Moving the sample households from a city with the
characteristics of Atlanta to a city with the
characteristics of Boston reduces annual VMT by 25 percent. Show Less -
The authors present a model that links
heterogeneity of preferences across ethnic groups in a city
to the amount and type of public good the city supplies.
Results ... Show More +show that the shares of spending on productive
public goods - education, roads, sewers, and trash pickup _
in U.S. cities (metro areas/urban counties) are inversely
related to the city's (metro area's/county's)
ethnic fragmentation, even after controlling for other
socioeconomic and demographic determinants. They conclude
that the ethnic conflict is an important determinant of
local public finances. In cities where ethnic groups are
polarized, and where politicians have ethnic constituencies,
the share of spending that goes to public goods is low.
Their results are driven mainly by how white-majority cities
react to varying minority-groups sizes. Voters choose lower
public goods when a significant fraction of tax revenues
collected from one ethnic group is used to provide public
goods shared with other ethnic groups. Show Less -
Porto Alegre: where the public controls
the purse strings, by Lucy Conger. Home ownership: the new
Chinese Dream, by Ted Plafker. Riches in rags, by Gabriela
Boyer.... Show More + The city economy. The devastation for cities, by
Robin Boyle, Charles Landry, Stuart Patrick, and Patralekha
Chatterjee. What ever happened to ports? by Mark Juhel and
Eric Pollock. Flying into the sun. A city of traders, by
Andrea Drabrowski, Ted Plafker, and Hossam Abd Raboh.
Trading services not goods. E in the sea of commerce, by
Sampath Srinivas. There is life after death, by Robin Boyle
and Stuart Patrick. Hyperabad: a tale of hype and hope, by
Patralekha Chatterjee. City indicators: measures of travel
time in cities, by Christine Auclair. The four world cities
transport study, by Jerry Lebo. Environment and
Urbanization: revisiting the theme of sustainable cities
seven years after the Earth Summit. Show Less -
In the wake of Hurricane Mitch.
International city design competition. Renaissance art fuels
commerce. Crime drives Johannesburg stock exchange out.
Neighborhood pa... Show More +rk in Hamburg. Rating Russia. Letters to the
editor. Crime and punishment, by Roger Graef. Manny Villar:
homebuilder for the Filipino poor, by Patralekha Chatterjee.
The future of water: should we pay for water? And, if so,
how? by John Kalbermatten. Delivering water to Mexico City.
Bail out: the global privatization of water supply, by
Penelope J. Brook Cowen. The myth surrounding waterfront
redevelopment. The pipes aren't leaking but the
water's gone. State of the art. Portrait of a city:
Shenzhen - China's boomtown, by Stephen Vines.
Mayor's corner: one mayor's education in food.
American urban challenge: the new metropolitan agenda, by
Curtis Johnson. City indicators: what cities do with their
waste. City resource guide. Show Less -
Feeding megacities : a worldwide
viewpoint. A tale of two cities : feeding Beijing and Delhi.
Nobody need starve. Business takes a new look at inner
cities. Farming... Show More + inside and around cities. The global threat
to food security. Keeping food flowing into cities. Peruvian
kitchens - a recipe for success. The challenge to wholesale
markets. Food in the new century. Show Less -
Rome celebrates millennium, by Christian
Jubilee. US-Mexico identities: culture at the border. Asia
pacific discussion: heritage network on-line. Geographic
Informa... Show More +tion System: historical town analyses. World
Monuments Fund: heritage sites named. Revitalizing cities
through culture, by Charles Landry. Culture &
development at the World Bank, by Ismail Serageldin.
Conservation in the old walled city of Lahore, by Katrinka
Ebbe. The new corporate philanthropy, by Keith W. Eirinberg.
Development + preservation = landmarking, by Mahasti Afshar.
The culture bank: a community-based museum provides
micro-credit, by Todd Vincent Crosby and Katrinka Ebbe.
Architecture of independence: the making of modern South
Asia, by Jonathan Hale. The challenge of living heritage, by
Khoo Salma Nasution. Cultural heritage resource guide. Show Less -
The authors construct a model of
second-generation rent control, describing a regime that
does not permit rent increases for sitting tenants--or their
eviction. Whe... Show More +n an apartment becomes vacant, however, the
landlord is free to negotiate a new contract with a higher
rent. They argue that this stylized system is a good (though
polar) approximation of rent control regimes that exist in
many cities in India, the United States, and elsewhere.
Under such a regime, if inflation exists, landlords prefer
to rent to tenants who plan to stay only a short time. The
authors assume that there are different types of tenants
(where "type" refers to the amount of time tenants
stay in an apartment) and that landlords are unable to
determine types before they rent to a tenant. Contracts
contingent on departure date are forbidden, so a problem of
adverse selection arises. Short stayers are harmed by rent
control while long-term tenants benefit. In addition, the
equilibrium is Pareto inefficient. The authors show that
when tenant types are determined endogenously (when a tenant
decides how long to stay in one place based on market
signals) in the presence of rent control, there may be
multiple equilibria, with one equilibrium Pareto-dominated
by another. In other words, many lifestyle choices are made
based on conditions in the rental housing market. One thing
rent control may do is decrease the mobility of the labor
force, because tenants may choose to remain in a city where
they occupy rent-controlled apartments rather than accept a
higher-paying job in another city. The authors show that
abolishing the rent control regime can do two things: shift
the equilibrium to a better outcome and result in lower
rents, across the board. Show Less -
The shadow economy (Dana Wickware).
Microentrepreneurs: the unacknowledged borrowers (Lucy
Conger). A conversation with Elaben Bhatt (Margaret Bergen
and Paralekha... Show More + Chatterjee). Waste not, want not (Michael
Sanio). Mostar: bridging the gap through design (Frank
Hanson). Editor's note (Margaret Bergen). Urban
indicators (Christine Auclair). Portrait of a city -
Salisbury (Patrick French). Cityscape (Annabel Biles).
American urban challenge - reharvesting the industrial
machine (Neal Peirce). "Freak Banker" tells how
to make loans to poor people (J. Daniel Taillant). Show Less -
A new economic reality on Asian city
streets (Patralekha Chatterjee). City war zones (Sultan
Barakat). Beirut: the lights are back on (May Farah).
Preparing African... Show More + cities for the bond market (Akin L.
Mabogunje). Credit ratings: what the experts look for
(Margaret Bergen). Researchers needed for global urban
database (Christine Auclair). Show Less -
Breaking the mold, by Howard French. The
Euro Age, by Giovanni Padula. A survey of technology in
cities, by Nigel Harris. New York's invisible
construction, by Mich... Show More +ael Fishman. Transportation : smart
moves. Sanitation : low tech still works. GIS : mapping the
future. The state of the art : news, products, and
information. American urban challenge : the new workplace,
by Neal R. Peirce. Architecture of independence : the making
of modern South Asia, by Jonathan Hale. Rescue or ruin? By
Michael Webb. Letters to the editor. How much do cities earn
and spend? by Christine Auclair. City resource guide : your
complete source for city knowledge. Show Less -
Solving the Rubik's Cube: cultural
heritage in cities of the developing world. Forward to the
past:cultural heritage a trigger for renewal. The politics
of heritage... Show More +: the culture war in urban India. Preservation
and livability in Fez, Morocco. The new corporate
philanthropy. Rediscovering Quito's past through
partnership. Strategies for survival: St. Petersburg museums
in the market economy. Children preserving their past in
Jordan. Mali fights to preserve fragments of West African
heritage. The economic implications of heritage
preservation. Is there a world heritage? Community
participation within the Calcutta Environmental Management
Strategy and Action Plan. Buryatia: the survival of a
culture. Modernization or "museumization?": an
interview with the mayor of Venice. The future of
Asia's cities. Living space and culture in Washington,
DC: a capital in search of a city. Show Less -
Responsible investing for cities and
taxpayers, by Timothy Irwin. New ways to package urban
investments, by Lyndsay Neilson. India's ULBs give
lenders more than IOU... Show More +s, by Patralekha Chatterjee. National
governments : help or hindrance?, by Margaret Bergen.
Rebuilding Moscow : boom or bust?, by Olga Kabanova. The new
competitive benchmarking, by Steven A. Waldhorn & Edmund
A. Egan. Mexico City's Fiscal autonomy : building it in
or building it up?, by Lucy Conger. Urban appeal : what
investment Banks bank on, by Leslie Carper. Ten steps to
sustainable urban infrastructure, by Charles Choguill. Light
rails to keep Salt Lake afloat, by Giovanni Padula.
Interview with Mexico City's Governor-elect Cuauhtemoc
Cardenas, by Yves Cabannes. Can Indian cities organize to
attract funding?, by Jenepher W. Moseley. People's
voice heard by US-China delegation, by Robert McNulty.
Training tomorrow's city managers today, by Don Aitkin. Show Less -
Municipal bond markets provide a vehicle
to narrow local governments resource gap through schemes
varying from debt funding based on the full faith and credit
sub-s... Show More +overeign issuers, to revenue bonds secured by the
earnings of such projects as water facilities and toll
roads. This note reviews the main characteristics of the US
municipal bond markets--the most advanced by any measure of
depth and sophistication. A separate Note discusses the
conditions underlying the development of municipal credit
markets in developing countries. Show Less -
Out of the tunnel of urban childhood.
Learning to get better. Unraveling the dilemma of child
labor. Children in development. Picture Cape Town: images of
South Afr... Show More +ica. Delhi's children take arms against air
pollution. Two-way street: children and OXFAM in
partnership. Urban stress without leads to youths'
stress within. Lead poisoning. Do poor urban children
matter? Urban youth and crime. Brazil's street kids
won't just go away. Children in the streets: an
interview with the mayor of Rio de Janeiro. The global grid
of strategic cities. A roof over their heads. Show Less -
The new role of mayors in a changing
global context. Interview with Jamie Ravinet, Mayor of
Santiago, Chile. Devolution of power in Allahabad. Interview
with Beverl... Show More +y O'Neill, Mayor of Long Beach, California.
Mayors on the frontline of national economic change.
Interview with Nicky Padayachee, Chief Executive Officer of
the Greater Johannesburg Transitonal Metropolitan Council.
One woman's journey to leadership. Who wants to be
president when you can be mayor? The American urban
challenge - answering to local community funding needs. Show Less -
The legacy of Habitat II. Habitat II: a
critical assessment. The right to housing debate. The
private sector: an afterthought. Implementing Habitat
II's objectives:... Show More + the role of USAID. Ahmedabad's
credit rating: builidng the basics for better urban finance.
Partnership in action. Children at Habitat II. Violence and
its effects on women's access to social services.
East-Central European urban and housinng indicators system.
Best practices in Istanbul...and after. The challenge of our
times. Life after Habitat II in Istanbul. Habitat II: a time
and a place to share ideas. Interview with Wally N'Dow,
Assistant Secretary-General, UNCHS (Habitat). Converstion
with Shafqat Kakakhel, Pakistan's High Commissioner to
the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat). Show Less -
Cites today: a new frontier. Innovative
programs for the urban poor in Cali, Columbia. Planning for
the future - the special furture of Suchitoto. The spirit of
Mia... Show More +mi. Cultural tourism in Eastern Europe and Russia. The
new American ghetto: spirit of survival. Urban talees: the
Hakawatis - populat story-tellers in Syria. Carnival: the
ultimate city celebration. Cities in films. Test your urban
knowledge. The tempestous birth of the new Asian city.
Celebrating urban life: searching for a livable city. Show Less -
Good municipal financing practices in
Latin America. What kind of financing systems support
decentralization? The Philippines: financing investment in
urban infrast... Show More +ructure through local government bonds. Urban
development and macroeconomic reform in Africa: the
financial link. Fiscal decentralization in Colombia:
advantages and pitfalls. Bombay: institutional governance
and urban finance. Financing decentralized government:
Indonesia, Hungary, and China - a status report. New
Zealand: reforming municipal financial management. Urban
cadastres: the Paraguayan experience in small and
medium-sized municipalities. Washington D.C.: federal
control reasserted through creation of the financial control
board. The urban activation plan: Tijuana's betterment
levy. An interview with Hector Osuna Jaime, President of the
Municipality of Tijuana. Show Less -
Privatization in St. Petersburg:
challenges in the post-Soviet era. Russian cities on the
road to a market economy: the housing sector. Privatization:
changing the ... Show More +nature of Buenos Aires. Albania: creating a new
private sector. Privatization of municipal services in
India. Public-private partnerships in municipal
infrastructure services. At the limits: the success and
failure of water privatization in Britain. Cote
d'Ivoire: public sector participation in water supply
and sanitation. Phoenix, Arizona: privatization of solid
waste services. Privatization of land in Russia.
Privatization in Peru: reducing the distances between us.
Privatizing toll roads in the Philippines. The reform of
urban grain stores in China. Privatization: can government
manage it? China: the challenge of urban migration. Show Less -
The age of international migration.
Exiting Hong Kong: social class and adjusting to 1997.
Canada's golden mountain: closing the gates? El
Salvador: impacts of inte... Show More +rnational migration on cities.
Overseas emigration helps reform Hanoi. Migration and
urbanization: a glimpse of the Gulf. Trans-urban migration -
South Africa as a test bed. Forced migration in the former
Soviet Union. Migration trends in Central and Eastern
Europe. Migration and cities in Germany. International
migration and the post-industrial city. Stirring the French
melting pot. The U.N. Population Conference: a preview. U.S.
conference of mayors finds benefits of immigrants outweigh
costs in U.S. cities. Show Less -