A severe pandemic would harm health, economies, and communities in all countries, but especially in poor and fragile states. Pandemic prevention requires robust public health systems (veterinary and human) that collaborate to stop contagion promptly.
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ChallengeFollowing the outbreak of the new A/H1N1 Human Influenza strain in Mexico, the virus quickly spread into the Central America region. Nicaragua was among the more severely affected countries i... Show More +n the region, with more than 2,152 confirmed cases of the A/H1N1 Human Influenza, and eleven official deaths, when WHO declared a worldwide pandemic in 2009. Important constraints faced by Nicaragua at the time included uneven quality of services, limited laboratory, diagnostic and surveillance capacity, poorly trained staff and inadequate supply of drugs.SolutionProject design focused on reducing the risk of illness and case fatality, particularly among high-risk groups. Thereby a substantial part of the grant was invested in relevant drugs and a smaller part in the capacitation of human resources and facilities. What made this approach so interesting was the versatility of focusing on a number of essential drugs and not only on Influenza vaccines. In the end the pandemic was far less pronounced in Nicaragua than anticipated, but the grant still benefitted a very large segment of the population. An innovative feature was the procurement of drugs through the Pan American Health Organization’s (PAHO) revolving fund mechanism, which required a waiver for certain Bank operation policies, otherwise PAHO’s UN status would have prohibited the agency to enter a standard World Bank supply contract.ResultsThe Project’s main result was to strengthen the countries health system capacity and pandemic preparedness and response (between 2009-2012) by supporting the following improvements:Nicaragua’s epidemiologic emergency preparedness and surveillance capacity improved substantially, as reflected in the availability of appropriately equipped facilities, availability of relevant medicines in 100 percent of targeted facilities and trained personnel. The capacity of the Nicaraguan Health System to effectively treat secondary infections in the case of human influenza improved, as reflected by 31 hospitals with staff certified in Human Influenza AH1N1 control, and the number of health workers with training in diagnosis, treatment and care of influenza patients. The population is increasingly aware of preventive measures against. The measure increased by 33 percentage points during one year of project implementation, surpassing the target of 80 percent by 13 percentage points. This finding is partly attributable to the rollout of the Bank supported communication and prevention strategy.The extent of the effectiveness of these inputs to increase prevention, surveillance and emergency response is not yet measurable, although there are indications of improvement.The direct beneficiaries were people at high risk for secondary infection, like pregnant women, children and elderly people, but through prevention and treatment the Project benefitted the general population. Show Less -
Bank Group ContributionThe project was financed by a grant of US$ 4.7 million from the Avian and Human Influenza Facility (AHIF), a trust fund administered by the World Bank and currently supported by... Show More + 10 donor agencies led by the European Commission.PartnersA number of international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the Wildlife Conservation Society, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) provided technical assistance to the project, or supervised the project implementation. Moving ForwardThe project outcomes are highly sustainable since the One Health Approach is now set firmly in place in the country. Capacity to respond to other emerging infectious disease has been also improved and further improvement can be expected.BeneficiariesMs. Myagmar is a doctor at the Darkhan Uul Central Health Center. “Before, we used to screen and treat our patients using only a stethoscope. Today the in-patient department in my hospital has eight different types of modern medical diagnostic equipments,” she said. Show Less -
The Avian Influenza virus is widespread in poultry and is a risk to human health. Infected poultry can infect humans. Once in the human body, the virus can mutate so it is easily transmitted from pers... Show More +on to person.Following a thorough assessment of Turkmenistan's laboratory services, the country's central veterinary laboratory was renovated and equipped to allow testing of this dangerous virus in a highly secure and contained environment to avoid any risk of it spreading and infecting others. To this end, staff were trained to handle and test Avian Influenza samples safely and accurately. Regional laboratories were also renovated and provided with basic equipment so that staff there could perform preliminary tests. Show Less -