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enGENDER IMPACT: Reducing Health Disparities

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Good health is a key aspect of wellbeing and a fundamental human right. Poor health, on the other hand, places high costs on individuals, households, firms, and governments. Poor health also keeps children out of school and adults out of work; both consequences hurt economic development.

The World Development Report on Gender Equality and Development (WDR2012) highlighted how gender disadvantages arise in both sickness and death. In developing countries, the WDR2012 found that poor institutions of public health and service delivery lead to excess female mortality in early childhood and the reproductive ages. In parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS risks compound the problem. In some societies, the WDR2012 also highlighted that men have excess death rates. These trends can follow, for example, high rates of homicide, substance abuse, or healthcare avoidance behavior among men compared to women. 

Women face particular health challenges during pregnancy and childbirth. Operations on gender-specific health programming are largely driven by the World Bank’s work on reproductive, maternal and child health. Beyond gender-specific interventions, a number of impact evaluations have found that safety nets and cash transfers directed to mothers can lead to lasting improvements in the health of children. Additionally, as part of the increased focus on the Science of Delivery, a group of studies is investigating how to create the right incentives for high-quality healthcare service delivery

Issue brief: Advancing Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health: Lessons from World Bank Group Gender Impact Evaluations

Relevant outcomes: mortality (infant, maternal, gender-disaggregated); sexual, maternal, and reproductive health outcomes; nutrition; access to healthcare; use of health services; hand washing; child health; sanitation

 


IE Title & Author(s)

Country

Gender Outcome(s)

Intervention Category

5 Years in Juntos: New Evidence on the Program's Short and Long-Term Impacts
Perova & Vakis

Peru

Consumption, income, use of healthcare services, child labor, school enrollment, school attendance

Cash Transfer

AIDS treatment and intrahousehold resource allocation: Children's nutrition andschooling in Kenya
Zivin, et al.

Kenya

Reproductive Health, school attendance, labor force participation, nutrition

Antiretroviral Treatment

Almost Random: Evaluating a Large-Scale Randomized Nutrition Program in the Presence of Crossover
Linnemayr & Alderman

Senegal

Nutrition

Nutrition

Alternative Cash Transfer Delivery Mechanisms: Impacts on Routine Preventative Health Clinic Visits in Burkina Faso
Akresh, et al.

Burkina Faso

Use of healthcare services, Intrahousehold Bargaining

Cash Transfer

An Impact Evaluation of Education, Health, and Water Supply Investments by the Bolivian Social Investment Fund
Newman, et al.

Bolivia

Child mortality, use of healthcare services, school performance

Social Fund

Anemia and School Participation
Bobonis, et al.

India

Gender disaggregated nutrition, school enrollment, school attendance

Iron Supplements

ARV Treatment and Time Allocation to Household Tasks: Evidence from Kenya
d'Adda, et al.

Kenya

Intrahousehold bargaining, reproductive health, women's access to healthcare

Antiretroviral Treatment

Cash Transfers, Behavioral Changes, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment
Macours, et al.

Nicaragua

Children's Nutrition, access to healthcare, cognitive skills, non-cognitive skills, Women's labor force participation, psychological agency

Cash Transfer

Cash Transfers, Behavioral Changes, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment
Macours, et al.

Nicaragua

Boys and girls health, nutrition, non-cognitive skills

Cash Transfer, Training

Causal effect of health on labor market outcomes: Evidence from a random assignment iron supplementation intervention
Thomas, et al.

Indonesia

Gender disaggregated nutrition, psychological agency, labor force participation, productivity

Iron Supplements

Child Growth, Shocks and Food Aid in Rural Ethiopia
Yamano, et al.

Ethiopia

Gender disaggregated nutrition

Food Aid

Did the Health Card Program Ensure Access to Medical Care for the Poor During Indonesia's Economic Crisis?
Pradhan, et al.

Indonesia

Access to healthcare

Health Subsidy

Do Public Health Interventions Crowd Out Private Health Investments? Malaria Control Policies in Eritrea
Carneiro, et al.

Eritrea

Use of healthcare services

Malaria Control

Do Teenagers Respond to HIV Risk Information? Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya
Dupas

Kenya

Reproductive health

Sexual Education

Does Community Driven Development Work? Evidence from Senegal
Arcand & Bassole

Senegal

Health of women, nutrition, consumption, participation or having a voice in the community

Community Driven Development

Does piped water reduce diarrhea for children in rural India?
Jalan & Ravallion

India

Sanitation, child health

Water

Early Childhood Development Through an Integrated Program: Evidence from the Philippines
Armecin, et al.

Philippines

Children cognitive skills, nutrition

Early Childhood Development

Economic and Social Impacts of Self-Help Groups in India
Seininger & Liu

India

Female nutrition, consumption, psychological agency, participation or voice in community

Community Driven Development

Education and HIV/AIDS Prevention: Evidence from a randomized evaluation in Western Kenya
Duflo, et al.

Kenya

Reproductive health, school enrollment, fertility

Reproductive Health

Educational and Health Impacts of Two School Feeding Schemes
Kazianga, et al.

Burkina Faso

Gender disaggregated school enrollment, school attendance, nutrition

Nutrition

Effect on Maternal and child health services in Rwanda of payment to primary health-care providers for performance: an impact evaluation
Basinga, et al.

Rwanda

Sexual, maternal and reproductive health outcomes

Pay Per Performance

Evaluating indoor residual spray for reducing malaria infection prevalence in Eritrea: Results from a community randomized trial
Keating, et al.

Eritrea

Use of healthcare services

Malaria Control

Handwashing Behavior Change at Scale Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Vietnam
Chase & Do

Vietnam

Gender disaggregated hand washing

Information Intervention, handwashing

HIV/AIDS sensitization and peer-mentoring Evidence from a randomized experiment in Senegal
Arcand, et al.

Senegal

Reproductive health

Reproductive Health

How valuable are environmental health interventions? Evidence from a quasi-experimental evaluation of community water projects
Pattanak, et al.

India

Hand washing, sanitation

Community Driven Development, Water and Sanitation

Impact evaluation of school feeding programs in Lao People's Democratic Republic
Buttenheim, et al.

Laos

Gender disaggregated school enrollment, nutrition

School feeding

Improving Child Nutrition Outcomes in India: Can the Integrated Child Development Services Program Be More Effective?
Ivaschenko, et al.

India

Gender disaggregated nutrition

Nutrition

Improving Nutrition through Community Growth Promotion: Longitudinal Study of the Nutrition and Early Child Development Program in Uganda
Alderman

Uganda

Gender disaggregated nutrition, income

Early Childhood Development, Deworming

Improving Nutritional Status through Behavioral Change: Lessons from Madagascar
Galasso & Umapathi

Madagascar

Gender disaggregated nutrition

Nutrition

Incentivizing safe sex: a randomized trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention in rural Tanzania
de Walque, et al.

Tanzania

Reproductive health

Cash Transfer

Mobile phone technologies improve adherence to antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting: a randomized controlled trial of text message reminders
Pop-Eleches, et al.

Kenya

Use of healthcare services

Reproductive Health

Power to the People: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment on Community-Based Monitoring in Uganda
Bjorkman & Svensson

Uganda

Health of women and girls, sexual, maternal and reproductive health, participation or having a voice in community or societal activities, motivation

Community Driven Development

Promoting Handwashing Behavior in Peru: The Effect of Large-Scale Mass-Media and Community Level Interventions
Galiani, et al

Peru

Gender disaggregated hand washing behaviors

Public Awareness

School Meals, Educational Achievement and School Competition: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation
Vermeersch & Kremer

Kenya

Gender disaggregated school enrollment, attendance, performance; nutrition

School Feeding

Sexual Behavior Change Intentions and Actions in the Context of a Randomized Trial of a Conditional Cash Transfer for HIV Prevention in Tanzania
Packel, et al.

Tanzania

Reproductive health, STDs/STIs, decision making over family formation

Reproductive Health

Should Aid Reward Performance? Evidence from a Field Experiment on Health and Education in Indonesia
Olken, et al.

Indonesia

Maternal health, nutrition, school attendance

Community Driven Development

Split Decisions: Family Finance When a Policy Discontinuity Allocates Overseas Work
Clemens & Tiongson

Philippines

Gender Disaggregated: consumption, access to healthcare, property, savings, school performance, intrahousehold bargaining

Migration Permits

Spring Cleaning: Rural Water Impacts, Valuation, and Property Rights Institutions
Kremer, et al.

Kenya

Health of girls

Sanitation

The Economic Impact of AIDS Treatment: Labor Supply in Western Kenya
Thirumurthy, et al.

Kenya

Reproductive health, female labor force participation

Antiretroviral Treatment

The Illusion of Sustainability
Kremer & Miguel

Kenya

Use of healthcare services

Deworming

The Impact of a Conditional Cash Transfer Program on Consumption in Colombia
Attanasio & Mesnard

Colombia

Consumption, nutrition after transfers to a female

Cash Transfer

The Impact of Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Program and its Linkages
Gilligan, et al.

Ethiopia

Gender disaggregated nutrition, access to credit, employment

Cash Transfer

The Impact of PROGRESA on Food Consumption
Hoddinott & Skoufias

Mexico

Nutrition

Cash Transfer

The Impacts of International Migration on Remaining Household Members: Omnibus Results from a Migration Lottery Program
Gibson, et al.

Tonga

Gender disaggregated income, property, nutrition, labor force participation

Migration

The Promise of Preschool in Africa: A Randomized Impact Evaluation of Early Childhood Development in Rural Mozambique
Martinez, et al.

Mozambique

Gender disaggregated nutrition, educational enrollment, attainment, performance, literacy and numeracy, non-cognitive skills, women's labor force participation, aspirations

Early Childhood Development

The short-term impact of a conditional cash subsidy on child health and nutrition in Colombia
Attanasio, et al.

Colombia

Consumption, nutrition after transfers to a female

Cash Transfer

Using Performance Incentives to Improve Medical Care Productivity and Health Outcomes
Gertler & Vermeerch

Rwanda

Health of children

Pay for Performance

Using Provider Performance Incentives to Increase HIV Testing and Counseling Services in Rwanda
de Walque, et al.

Rwanda

Sexual and reproductive health outcomes

Pay for Performance

Worms: Identifying Impacts on Education and Health in the Presence of Treatment Externalities
Miguel & Kremer

Kenya

Gender disaggregated use of healthcare services, school attendance

Deworming

 

 



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