After almost a year of crisis, Yemen has embarked on a political transition based on an agreement brokered by the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in November 2011. Yemen started a 565-member National Dialogue process in March 2013, which concluded in January 2014 with the decision to transform Yemen into a Federal State.
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Despite being a predominantly rural country—with 68% of its total population living in rural areas—where irrigated agriculture remains the main economic activity, and source of income and employment, ... Show More +Yemen was undergoing a rapid dwindling of its groundwater resources. Per capita availability of water was 115 m3 per year, compared to 1,250 m3 in MNA countries, while the rest of the world relied on an average of 7,500 m3. If nothing was done, this already low water availability would gradually be reduced to an unsustainable 65 m3 per year by 2031. Moreover, farmers had no, or barely any, on-farm water management practices that could help minimize consumption. Therefore, the depletion of groundwater directly impacted poverty, employment and social order. SolutionThe Groundwater and Soil Conservation Project was intended to assist the Government of Yemen (GOY) in promoting groundwater conservation in farming areas, and increasing surface and groundwater availability. The project aimed at improving irrigation water use efficiency, thus increasing farmer returns to water and creating the conditions that would allow farmers to reduce groundwater pumping from aquifers. It also focused on improving recharge and protection of watersheds in order to increase surface and groundwater availability. Another emphasis of the project was on supporting the groundwater management framework and institutions to provide the incentive and capacity to manage local water resources in a sustainable manner.ResultsMany of the farmers assisted by the project have received substantial benefits, which helped to reduce costs and improve yields. Smaller farmers received a higher rate of subsidy, while subsidies for larger farmers were limited by an area ceiling. Besides saving more than 80 million cubic meters (MCM) of groundwater per year, the project investments resulted in significantly improved levels of family incomes for project beneficiaries, increasing from 13.8 to 27% over the previous levels. Additionally, the economic rate of return (ERR) increased from 16.6% at project appraisal to 36.4%. Furthermore, the net present value (NPV) reached Yemeni Rial (YR) 13.7 billion (US$62.3 million) as opposed to YR 2.27 billion at appraisal. The production increase of benefited farms and the reduction in production costs (mainly from the reduction of groundwater pumping by 16%) resulted in a 43% increase of the pumped water productivity (from YR 53 of net value of production per cubic meter of water pumped to YR 76).Bank Group ContributionA total amount of US$54.2 million was disbursed out of an IDA credit of US$40.0 million and an Additional IDA credit of US$15.0 million to complete the project. In addition to this, US$1.1 million was provided from Japan Social Development Fund (JSDF) to support three pilot schemes which successfully demonstrated sustainable management of groundwater resoruces by communities.PartnersThe project was implemented by the project coordination unit (PCU) established under the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation. Under the PCU, 10 field units were established to carry out day-to-day supervision of the project activities in the selected governorates. Sanaa University participated in the project as an implementing agency for JSDF-funded activities. Through the implementation of this project, the Bank played a leading role in irrigation and water resources management in Yemen and led the discussion of the National Water Sector Strategy and Investment Program with the Government in collaboration with other development partners (GIZ, KfW, Netherlands, and JICA).Moving ForwardThe project was scaled up by additional financing of US$15 million. Moreover, the project was followed by the Water Sector Support Project of US$90 million loan as a nationwide project cofinanced with KfW and the Netherlands.BeneficiariesThe project promoted bucket type drip irrigation by women for home garden vegetable farming to increase nutrition of poor families. This aspect of the project was later taken up by a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) project. For piped conveyance systems, 94% of farmers reported increased incomes, and 80% reported increased incomes for localized on-farm irrigation systems. On average, farmers saved 46% in pumping costs, 39% in diesel fuel, and 54% in labor. A few farmers—4% for piped conveyance and 9% for localized on-farm irrigation systems—indicated that the project had a positive impact on groundwater levels. In relation to sustainability, farmers have already started maintaining the piped and localized on-farm irrigation systems by themselves. In terms of long term impact, a problem solving partnership has developed with farmers, particularly with regards to the piped conveyance systems. Farmers felt the main benefits were in reduced labor, increased yields, and water savings, with even stronger impacts for the localized on-farm irrigation systems. Show Less -
Bank Group ContributionThe overall WB biodiversity portfolio of 245 projects in the ten years from FY2004 to 2013 included direct biodiversity commitments worth over US$ 1 billion. Of this, 27 percent... Show More + came from GEF funds, while 69 percent came from IBRD/IDA. These projects have taken place in 74 countries in all six of the WBG’s regions. Most projects were in the Africa and in the Latin America and Caribbean regions, which between them accounted for more than two thirds of biodiversity projects. In 2013, new biodiversity commitments amounted to US$ 35 million relatively low compared to previous years, but the current pipeline contains projects worth US$ 269 million.PartnersGlobal and regional partnerships are playing an important role in promoting biodiversity conservation. Some of the key partnerships are as follows:The Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund (CEPF) has brought together the governments of France and Japan together with the MacArthur Foundation, the European Commission and Conservation International, and awarded grants to over 1,600 civil society organizations to reduce threats to 21 critically endangered hotspots.The Global Tiger Initiative launched in 2008 has helped strengthen political ownership by the 13 tiger countries of their endangered tiger populations.The Save our Species (SOS) program seeks to leverage private sector engagement for funding for threatened species and has provided support to 75 species across 34 countries to date.The International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime is a collaborative effort of five inter-governmental organizations to bring coordinated support to national wildlife law enforcement agencies and sub-regional networks. Moving ForwardGoing forward, Bank investments in biodiversity will build on our comparative advantage as an institution that sets the benchmark for public development finance globally. The World Bank’s leadership and coordinating role within the donor community, complemented by access to trust funds and lending resources, can help mainstream biodiversity within national agendas as a critical part of sustainable development.Four areas of emphasis have emerged from our decades of experience investing in biodiversity and ecosystem services:(1) addressing policy failures through the design and application of new tools (e.g. to implement natural capital accounting), financing instruments (especially Development Policy Operations (DPOs), and partnerships (e.g. Wealth Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services or WAVES);(2) strengthening governance and the role of public sector agencies in partnership with the private sector and civil society, focusing in particular on improving systems of governance and institution-building;(3) building resilience through investments in biodiversity and ecosystem services across landscapes in close collaboration with other sectors, particularly through the use of land-use planning, moving beyond sector silos, and mainstreaming the use of green infrastructure to reduce the exposure of physical and social capital to external shocks; and(4) reducing governments’ exposure to volatile boom-and-bust financing by creating, piloting and mainstreaming financial mechanisms that enable long-term investment in nature and create financial flows from biodiversity and ecosystem services.Beneficiaries“Training on navigation is used quite a lot during patrols. We’ve also been able to use training in the arrest of suspects through ambushes and takedowns. We’ve also found training in reconnaissance and first aid to be very helpful as well,” remarked Salak Chairacha, Enforcement Ranger Patrol Team Leader, TLNP. “It’s been a rigorous process but the long-term engagement of SOS over two years has meant we could take the time to build the formal partnerships and relationships we needed. Now we have a strong foundation for the future,” says Mr. Brad Rutherford, Executive Director of the Snow Leopard Trust. The community programmes launched with SOS support are being recognised as a key part of Pakistan’s strategy for meeting its national snow leopard survival objectives as well as the goals set by the Global Snow Leopard Forum. Show Less -
Bank Group ContributionThe World Bank funding for water resources management amounted to about US$8.08 billion across projects approved during fiscal years 2004-2013. In FY11 as well as FY12, Wo... Show More +rld Bank funding for water resources management amounted to US$1.2 billion; in FY13, it amounted to US$ 800 million.PartnersThe Bank collaborates with partners to support innovation in integrated water resources management. Given the broad reach of water resources management needs and initiatives, this type of collaboration has been significant.The World Bank strengthens the quality of its water projects through additional support from Global Partnership Programs.The Bank’s Water Partnership Program (WPP), a multi-donor trust fund, contributes to the Bank’s efforts to reduce poverty by bolstering operational and analytical work through the mainstreaming of pragmatic approaches for water resources management and water supply and sanitation service delivery. Under its first phase (2009-2012), the program helped influence almost US$11.7 billion in Bank financing and secured access to improved water and sanitation services for more than 50 million people. Under the WPP's second phase (2013-2016) more than $40 million will be committed to tackling water challenges by working at the nexus of food, energy and water security, and by supporting paths to climate-resilient, green growth.Significant amounts of water are needed in almost all energy generation processes. Conversely, the water sector needs energy to extract, treat and transport water and both energy and water are used in the production of crops. To support countries’ efforts to address challenges in energy and water management proactively, the World Bank with the support of WPP has embarked in 2013 on a global initiative: Thirsty Energy. The initiative aims to help governments prepare for an uncertain future, and break disciplinary silos that prevent cross-sectoral planning. Thirsty Energy demonstrates the importance of combined energy and water management approaches through demand-based work in several countries, thus providing examples of how evidence-based operational tools in resource management can enhance sustainable development.Next to innovative and often integrated water services solutions, WPP activities take a comprehensive approach to water resources, working at the river basin, delta, or country level to assess and define the best strategies for sustainable management. The program’s Water Expert Team (WET), which mobilizes high-level global expertise to meet complex and urgent demand, also devotes two-thirds of its support to World Bank water resources management programs that focus on improved decision making for disaster risk management and uncertainty under natural water variability and climate change impacts.Established in 2009, the South Asia Water Initiative (SAWI) is a multi-donor partnership between the World Bank and the governments of United Kingdom, Australia and Norway. The overarching objective of SAWI is to: increase regional cooperation in the management of the major Himalayan river systems in South Asia to deliver sustainable, fair and inclusive development and climate resilience. SAWI supports activities related to the management of the Greater Himalayas transboundary water systems in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. The key rationale for engagement is to demonstrate and then to help achieve the mutual benefits of cooperation across shared river basins.Cooperation in International Waters in Africa (CIWA) aims to support and assist riparian governments in Africa to work together to address and unlock the constraints on growth and development posed by international waters. Specifically, it focuses on strengthening regional cooperation, water resources management and development, and stakeholder engagement and coordination by enabling greater voice and accountability. The program is supported by Development Partners, including the UK, Denmark and Norway.In March 2011, the World Bank signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the United States government to expand and enhance collaboration in the water sector. The Bank is working in close cooperation with 16 U.S. agencies to support developing countries in managing global water crises, such as the lack of safe drinking water and sanitation, diminishing aquifers, drought, flooding, and climate change impacts.Moving ForwardContinuous Bank leadership and strengthened support will be critical to secure the above achievements and increase the benefits to poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The World Bank is currently developing a new vision for water that strengthens the water practice to deliver on the bold leadership aspirations and meet changing client need. The vision places water at the center of helping people, economies and ecosystems thrive and thus contributing to a world free of poverty. Moving forward the Bank will:Strengthen efforts to address climate variability in Bank-financed projects through improved storage and other adaptation measures, flood control, and emergency response preparednessDevote more resources to explore and strengthen the linkages between water and other sectors such as energy, agriculture and the environment, and support initiatives that aim at improving water allocation mechanisms and institutionsEnsure that water considerations are included in country-sectoral planningImprove efficiency of water supply systemsEnsure that the food security agenda considers irrigation and work with clients to improve water efficiency of existing irrigation schemesStrengthen the use and supply of data for decision making and dialogue between countries, and facilitate the integration of technologies for more reliable informationContinue its strong support to institutional reform and capacity building of relevant organizations, and strengthen global water partnerships for lasting impact BeneficiariesIt is something Arwa Mohamed remembers well. When it rained, the floodwaters in the streets in her Taiz neighborhood in Yemen were so high people were stuck for days “When it would rain and the kids were in school, we were afraid, because the floods would come and cut off the streets, and whoever was home - the mothers - would wait by the windows to see their children coming, and scream out ‘don’t try to cross, it is dangerous.’ The flood once even swept away an old woman and her grandchild.” Finally, says Arwa, “her neighborhood is safe.” The rain waters still come, but now travel underneath her neighborhood, instead of through it, by way of a covered channel. “Now we have these nicely paved streets, and we can cross even during floods, but before, we were completely cut from life when it rained, see what I mean?”Shawki Ahmed Hayel Saeed, Taiz Local Council and businessman “It was not only the improvements of solving the problems of the water flooding that happened in Taiz in the last few years, but it was also for the additional contracts that were implemented in these projects, for paving and asphalting a lot of streets in the city, employing a lot of people, and also helping the local council in training and improving the revenues for the people’s participation in the project in Taiz.”For 28-year old grocer, Amin Jibari, the project has finally brought security to his basement home “ no more, everything now is good, after they built the channel and a protection wall, the floods don’t come here, we are relaxed, no flooding!” Amin says since the construction of a covered channel nearby, he and his family of five are no longer in danger! 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Bank Group ContributionAs of March 2013, Bank resources have financed 56 operations in 35 countries. Of the total approved operations, 58 percent of funds had been allocated to Africa as of October 20... Show More +12, 18 percent to South Asia, 17 percent to East Asia and Pacific, 3.4 percent to Latin America and Caribbean, 2.1 percent to Europe and Central Asia, and 2 percent to Middle East and North Africa. Forty-four percent of funds focused on agriculture supply response, 34 percent have been development policy operations that have supported government policies and institutional actions to address the food crisis, 20 percent of funds focused on social protection actions, and 2 percent on project management, monitoring and evaluation activities and communications support.The Bank has engaged in policy dialogue with more than 40 countries to assist them to address the food crisis. PartnersIn addition to World Bank resources, grant funding has been made available through three externally-funded trust funds in support of the full range of activities available under the GFRP: a multi-donor trust fund has received contributions of AUD 50 million from the Australian Government, €80 million from the Government of Spain, 11.46 billion Korean won from the Republic of Korea, CAD 30 million from the Government of Canada, and US$150,000 from the International Finance Corporation; a Russia Food Price Crisis Rapid Response Trust Fund received a US$15 million contribution from the Russian Federation for the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, and the European Union has contributed €112 million to support operations in 10 countries. Effective partnerships have led to successful implementation of GFRP operations and enhanced institutional capacity in many developing countries. The World Bank is working in 11 countries with United Nations agencies including the World Food Programme, the United Nations Children’s Fund, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, and the Food and Agriculture Organization to implement GFRP operations. Civil society organizations have been strongly involved in designing, monitoring, and implementing at least 20 GFRP projects in 18 countries. The Bank is also actively engaged with the United Nations High-Level Task Force on the Global Food Security Crisis, providing financial support through the World Bank's Development Grant Facility and participating in the updating of the UN’s Comprehensive Framework for Action. Moving Forward The GFRP expedited processing facility expired on June 30, 2012, implying that new Bank-financed projects can no longer be processed under the expedited processing procedures of the GFRP. Global food price volatility has become a longer-term phenomenon requiring concerted actions beyond the GFRP. Presently, the Bank has new instruments to respond to future emergencies, with some of them building on the GFRP experience. New instruments, such as the IDA Crisis Response Window and Immediate Response Mechanism and IBRD’s Exposure Management Framework will allow the Bank to respond quickly should emergencies arise. With respect to the GFRP, the Bank will focus on implementation of the ongoing GFRP-financed projects. The Bank has been incorporating lessons learned from the GFRP into the World Bank Group Agricultural Action Plan FY13-15, which commits to maintaining scaled-up lending of between US$7 billion and US$9 billion annually, including a focus on “Reducing Risk and Vulnerability” to help clients prepare and respond to future emergencies. The Bank will continue to strengthen global programs and partnerships, including mobilizing additional resources for the public sector window of the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP), and it will continue to play a key role in the international arena on food security matters, including through international forums such as the UN High-Level Task Force on Food and Nutrition Security, the UN Committee on Food Security, the G8, and the G20. Show Less -
BeneficiariesAchiron Bibi joined the Graduation Program in West Bengal. She wanted to build a fish pond, start a vegetable garden, and expand her bangle business. This would allow her to send all five... Show More + children to school and help treat her husband's stomach tumor. Two years later, she had a vegetable garden through the program, built the fish pond with government support, and doubled the initial stock through savings to expand the bangle shop. Her children are in school, and her husband sought help from a government clinic. Achiron sums it up: “Now, I can stand on my own two feet.”In the NewsThe Economist, May 12, 2012, "Hope springs a trap"The Huffington Post, July 18, 2012, "The Power of Hope: Graduation Programs for the Extreme Poor Do More Than Directly Reduce Poverty"Geo-ReferenceHaiti: Rural Boukan Kare, Twoudino and LagonavIndia: West Bengal and Andhra PradeshPakistan: Coastal SindhHonduras: LempiraPeru: CuscoEthiopia: TigrayYemen: Aden, Lahj, and TaizGhana: Tamale, East Mamprusi and Bulsa Show Less -
ChallengeGender inequality is manifestly unfair. It is also bad economics: under-investing in women and girls puts a brake on poverty reduction and limits economic and social development. There has be... Show More +en major progress in health and education over the past three decades: two-thirds of all countries have now reached gender parity in primary education, fertility rates have declined, and life expectancy for women has increased substantially.Yet, serious gender disparities persist. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, for example, still see maternal mortality rates comparable to that of Northern Europe in the 19th century. Wage gaps and gender segregation in economic activity are pervasive—for example, women agricultural workers, especially in Africa, operate smaller plots of land, have less access to essential inputs such as fertilizer, are limited in their access to credit, and farm less remunerative crops, leading to less overall productivity. Globally, only one in five national parliament members is a woman and an estimated one in ten ever-partnered women will be abused by a partner in her lifetime. In some cases, there is a reverse problem, in over one-third of countries, girls significantly outnumber boys in secondary education. The World Bank Group has focused on gender since 1977, when it appointed its first Women in Development Adviser. In 1995, then-President Jim Wolfensohn chose to give his first major speech at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, proposing universal primary education for girls and boys by 2010. The Bank adopted a mainstreaming strategy in 2001, and in 2008, then-President Robert Zoellick called for an increase in IDA investments toward gender as one of his six commitments on gender equality.The Gender Action Plan (2007-2011) boosted the Bank Group’s support to women and girls in the traditionally difficult-to-mainstream economic sectors, using pilots to increase visibility and yield results in the short term. The plan’s clear message, “Gender Equality as Smart Economics” built on the World Bank’s comparative advantage and helped gain broad-based support.Gender was identified as a special theme for the 16th IDA replenishment which mobilized funding for the IDA16 implementation period FY2012-2014. IDA committed to strengthen gender mainstreaming in its operations and analytical work through specific gender-related deliverables in these countries over the three-year period.Among the deliverables was the completion and launch in September 2011, of the World Bank’s World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (WDR 2012), which provided much-needed evidence documenting areas of progress and remaining gender gaps globally.Disparities in gender equality come with economic costs, shortchange the next generation, and lead to suboptimal institutions and policies. Studies show that progress in this area benefits everyone, not just women and girls. Economies thrive; women, men, girls, and boys have access to equal opportunities; and communities prosper when women and men are equally empowered.SolutionUnder IDA16, the Bank made specific commitments to accelerate progress on gender mainstreaming and gender-related MDGs, and introduce a robust results framework to track this progress. The actions are as follows:Complete the World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development;Ensure that 100 percent of IDA CASs draw on and discuss the findings of a gender assessment, which would be supported through the issuance of a guidance note on the World Bank gender policy, training for staff on how to mainstream gender issues in CASs, and more robust corporate review of gender analysis of CASs by the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management (PREM) network;Increase gender-informed IDA investments and monitor progressContinue to track three indicators to measure IDA’s support to gender-based country outcomes in the percentage of: (i) safety nets projects designed to mitigate risk and vulnerability for women and girls; (ii) agriculture and rural development operations that target women; and (iii) health projects that address high fertility and maternal mortality;Complete the preparation of Regional Gender Action Plans;Implement the Reproductive Health Action Plan with a focus on 52 priority countries with high maternal mortality and total fertility rates, including 25 countries in the Africa region;Complete the Education Sector Strategy and subsequently implement a program of action targeting gender issues in high priority countries; andStrengthen efforts to integrate a gender perspective in IDA’s support to fragile and conflict-affected countries.This framework was complemented by a Bank Group-wide set of strategic directions, laid out following the release of the WDR 2012 to increase attention to gender equality and to provide a framework for the World Bank’s work going forward. These five strategic directions are:informing country policy dialogue;enhancing country-level gender diagnostics;scaling up lending for domestic priorities;increasing the availability of gender-relevant data and statistics; andleveraging partnerships.The World Bank Group is already seeing marked improvement in the quality and volume of gender-informed work in response to the IDA16 commitments and the strategic directions based on the recommendations of the WDR 2012. The work is far from over, however, and continued attention to issues of gender equality in IDA and across the Bank Group is crucial to ensuring that gains are not temporary and that gender equality remains everyone’s business.Results A number of projects have achieved positive gender results, and promising new projects are getting off the ground that specifically target women and girls as beneficiaries. A few examples are below.In Punjab, Pakistan, home to 60 percent of the country’s population, the Bank is helping expand access to quality education and promote better governance and accountability in the education system. Under the government’s Bank-supported program, more than 400,000 eligible girls receive targeted monthly stipends tied to school attendance; and the government supports approximately 2,000 low-cost private schools serving nearly a million low-income students. This is in a broader context where the primary net enrollment rate increased from 50 percent to 54 percent since 2007 and the ratio of female-male primary net enrollment rose in rural areas from 61 percent to 76 percent.Tajikistan faces high stunting rates, the result of under-nutrition, a condition exacerbated by the 2008 food price shock. To mitigate the risk of malnutrition, the Bank-supported Community and Basic Health Project provides food packages and micronutrient supplements to approximately 50,000 women, infants and children under age 5. By mid-2011, the project had trained 1,000 primary healthcare workers and 300 community volunteers to deliver education on breastfeeding, good nutrition and care of sick children to 1,000 pregnant woman, and micronutrient supplements and vitamins had been delivered to approximately 44,000 women and children.The IDA-funded US$150 million Water and Sanitation Service Improvement Project, approved in 2007, is supporting Kenya’s efforts to expand access to safe water and sanitation services. The project initiated a capacity building program targeting 24 utilities. One example of the project’s aim to improve access is the Githunguri Water Company which, following the utility training, changed its connection policy. It no longer requires women to provide title deeds to secure a connection or to register under their father’s or husband’s names. Meters can now be rented and connection payments made by installments. As a result, between January and May 2011 the company received 18 applications from women. Following the change of policy and awareness creation, within six weeks 50 women had signed up for new connections and 29 had been connected. Similar efforts were recorded with the Kiambu Water Company which reduced connection fees from US$93 to US$67 and made it payable by installments, targeting increased applications from women.The Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MoWI) in Kenya won second place in the United Nations Public Service Award (UNPSA) in 2012, in recognition of its work to promote gender-responsive public service delivery.In Liberia, the Adolescent Girls Initiative, Economic Empowerment of Adolescent Girls and Young Women targets 2,500 young women age 16 to 27 in Greater Monrovia and Kakata City at the critical school-to-work transition stage. The program consists of six-months of classroom training followed by six-months of placement and support (including micro-enterprise advisory services and internship and job placement assistance). The aim is to smooth the transition from the classroom to wage or self-employment. About 65% of the girls were trained in business development skills and roughly 35% were trained in job skills. All girls also received life skills training. Post-training all graduates enter a 6-month support period where they are assisted with job searching and placement or otherwise supported to start their own businesses.Preliminary results show that the program led to a 50 percent increase in employment and a 115% increase in average weekly income among project beneficiaries, compared to those in the control group. The majority of the employment increase was driven by the business skills track. The program also significantly increases average weekly income and girls’ savings.More than eleven years after the fall of the Taliban, improving the lives of women in Afghanistan remains a critical challenge. One of the more ambitious efforts has been led by the National Solidarity Program (NSP), a community-driven development project which covers 30,000 villages across Afghanistan. NSP includes special provisions to promote gender equality, such as establishing a gender-balanced village development council and requiring female participation in council elections and in the selection of village projects.The program was found to improve attitudes on female participation in community affairs. Men in villages with NSP were 20 percent more likely to accept women’s involvement in the selection of the village headman, while women were 8 percent more likely. There was also a reduction in the proportion of men and women who felt that female villagers should have no role in community decision-making (by 42 and 16 percent respectively). Women and men in villages with NSP were more likely to report that there is at least one woman in the village well-respected by men and women alike (21 and 27 percent respectively), and women in NSP villages were also 13 percent more likely to have been involved in income-generating activities.In Bolivia, the Urban Infrastructure Project (2006-2010) aims to achieve sustainable improvements in the urban infrastructure and living standards in the poorest neighborhoods of La Paz, to enhance mobility in the city of El Alto, and to expand sewerage coverage in poor areas of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Some early benefits of this project include a reduction in violence against women resulting from the installation of indoor sanitation facilities and street lighting; an expected enhancement of women’s economic opportunities due to the construction of childcare facilities and community centers; and pedestrian friendly infrastructure which took into account the needs of women, the elderly, and children.The Burundi Health Sector Development Support Project (US$25 million), is a national results-based financing program which has helped to increase utilization of reproductive health services. It saw an increase in facility based births by 25 percent; an increase in prenatal consultations by 20 percent; a 35 percent increase in curative care consultations for pregnant women; and a 27 percent increase in family planning services obtained through health facilities during its first year of implementation (FY11). Knowledge efforts include Demographic Dividend in African Countries which focused on addressing the policy implications of population growth and economic development, identified country-specific factors for capturing the demographic dividend, and estimated the expected size and duration of the additional population and economic growth.The Safe Motherhood Vouchers Program has provided services to poor households in Sana’a, Yemen, through vouchers aimed at pregnant women. The project enrolled 9,500 poor eligible women and delivered births to about 7,000 cases. The political climate and security concerns have slowed work in 2012 and have created additional barriers to improving health outcomes, as witnessed by the closure of health centers in Yemen (for example), which will need to be reviewed and addressed moving forward.Current operations specifically addressing at-risk youth and employment in fragile and conflict-affected states include the Afghanistan Skills Development Project (US$20 million from IDA and funding from other donors), the Liberia Youth, Employment, Skills Project (US$6 million from IDA and additional funding from the Catalytic Growth Fund), the Sierra Leone Youth Employment Support Skills Project (US$20 million from IDA) and the Côte d’Ivoire Emergency Youth Employment and Skills Development Project (US$50 million from IDA). These projects target low-skilled male youth and include provisions to assure participation of low-skilled female youth.And, finally, a $50 million IDA operation in Ethiopia, the Women’s Entrepreneurship Development Project, promotes small and medium enterprises owned or part owned by women, through access to microfinance, developing entrepreneurial skills, technology and cluster development, training in project management, advocacy and outreach, monitoring and evaluation, and impact evaluations to provide lessons about what works.Bank Group ContributionIn FY2012, approximately US$12.9 billion, or 90 percent, of IDA commitments were gender-informed.Moving Forward World Bank Group is ramping up its gender work and policy dialogue in all regions and sectors through Regional Gender Action Plans, Country Assistance Strategies, and a greater emphasis on measuring results, improving data coverage and working in frontier areas. The IDA16 commitments will continue to be tracked, and gender will continue to feature as a prominent area of focus beyond the IDA16 implementation period.World Bank President Jim Yong Kim has made strong commitments on gender, highlighting a need for better data that measures equality for women and girls. In this vein, the World Bank is committed to improving data collection in 10 countries this year, in key areas such as women's earnings, property ownership, and political voice. Next year, the World Bank will target 10 additional countries, and add more each year.A gender companion to the 2013 World Development Report on Jobs will be completed in mid-2013, and a new report on Women’s Voice, Agency, and Participation will be released in Spring 2014. Additionally the third edition of the World Bank Group’s Women, Business and the Law report will be released in Fall 2013, updating and expanding on the existing data, including new economies, and adding information on violence against women legislation. This underlines the World Bank’s long-held assertion that these issues matter intrinsically and that addressing them is the smart thing to do, because inequality is costly, and increasingly so in a globalizing world. Show Less -