Montenegro is an upper-middle-income country with enormous growth potential. Montenegro became a member of the World Bank Group in 2007. Montenegro’s economy has huge potential, but is hindered by significant structural, economic, and fiscal risks.
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Dramatic climate changes and weather extremes already affecting millions of lives, but solutions exist WASHINGTON, November 23, 2014 – As the planet warms further, heat-waves and other weather ex... Show More +tremes that today occur once in hundreds of years, if ever, would become the “new climate normal,” creating a world of increased risks and instability. The consequences for development would be severe as crop yields decline, water resources shift, sea-levels rise, and the livelihoods of millions of people are put at risk, according to a new scientific report released today by the World Bank Group.In parts of Central Asia and the Western Balkans specifically, unprecedented heat extremes could occur in over 60 percent of summer months and drought risk could increase by 20 percent in a 4°C warmer world, the report finds. At the same time, projections suggest an increase in riverine flood risk, mainly in spring and winter, due to more intense snow melt in spring and heavier rainfall in the winter months. Climate change impacts such as extreme heat events may now be unavoidable because the Earth’s atmospheric system is locked into warming close to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels by mid-century, the report said. Even very ambitious mitigation action taken today will not change this, it said.“Today’s report confirms what scientists have been saying – past emissions have set an unavoidable course to warming over the next two decades, which will affect the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people the most,” said Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank Group. “We’re already seeing record-breaking temperatures occurring more frequently, rainfall increasing in intensity in some places, and drought-prone regions like the Mediterranean becoming drier.”“These changes make it more difficult to reduce poverty and put in jeopardy the livelihoods of millions of people,” Kim said. “They also have serious consequences for development budgets, and for institutions like the World Bank Group, where our investments, support and advice must now also build resilience and help affected populations adapt.”Dramatic climate changes and weather extremes are already affecting people around the world, damaging crops and coastlines, and putting water security at risk, according to the report, Turn Down the Heat: Confronting the New Climate Normal. Many of the worst projected climate impacts could still be avoided by holding warming below 2°C, the report said.“The good news is that we can take action that reduces the rate of climate change and promotes economic growth, ultimately stopping our journey down this dangerous path,” Kim said. “World leaders and policy makers should embrace affordable solutions like carbon pricing and policy choices that shift investment to clean public transport, cleaner energy and more energy efficient factories, buildings and appliances.”Turn Down the Heat: Confronting the New Climate Normal is an analysis of likely impacts of present day (0.8°C), 2°C and 4°C warming above pre-industrial levels on agricultural production, water resources, ecosystem services, and coastal vulnerability across Latin-America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, and parts of Europe and Central Asia. It builds on a 2012 Bank report, which concluded the world would warm by 4 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels by the end of this century if we did not take concerted action immediately. The report, prepared for the World Bank Group by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics, reveals how rising global temperatures are increasingly threatening the health and livelihoods of the most vulnerable populations, crucially magnifying problems each region is struggling with today.A common threat across the three regions is the risks posed by heat extremes. State‐of‐the‐art climate modeling shows that “highly unusual” heat extremes, similar to the heat-waves experienced in the US in 2012 and Russia and Central Asia in 2010, increase rapidly under a 4°C emission pathway.It also reveals that the risks of reduced crop yields and production losses for the regions studied increase significantly above 1.5°C to 2°C warming. It notes that declines in agricultural productivity will also have impacts outside core producer regions, with strong repercussions on food security, and may negatively affect economic growth and development, social stability and well‐being.Key findings across the regions include:Latin America and the Caribbean: Heat extremes and changing precipitation patterns will have adverse effects on agricultural productivity, hydrological regimes and biodiversity. In Brazil, without additional adaptation, crop yields could decrease by up to 70 percent for soybean and up to 50 percent for wheat at 2°C warming by 2050. Ocean acidification, sea level rise, tropical cyclones and temperature changes will impact coastal livelihoods, tourism, health, food and water security, particularly in the Caribbean. Melting glaciers would be a hazard for Andean cities.Middle East and North Africa: A large increase in heat-waves combined with warmer average temperatures will put intense pressure on already scarce water resources, with major consequences for human consumption and regional food security. In Jordan, Egypt, and Libya, crop yields could decrease by up to 30 percent at 1.5 to 2°C warming by 2050. Migration and climate‐related pressure on resources may also increase the risk of conflict.Western Balkans and Central Asia: Reduced water availability in some places will become a threat as increases in temperatures head toward 4°C. Melting glaciers in Central Asia and shifts in the timing of water flows will reduce the amount of water available in summer months and increase the risk of torrential floods. In the Western Balkans, climate extremes will pose major risks to agricultural systems, energy, and human health. A 2°C warming would already entail significant impacts, such as in Macedonia where yield losses are projected up to 50 percent for maize, wheat, vegetables and grapes by 2050.The report also warns that, if warming continues unabated, irreversible changes on a large scale could be triggered. In northern Russia, forest dieback and thawing of permafrost threaten to amplify global warming as stored carbon and methane are released into the atmosphere, giving rise to a self-amplifying feedback loop. Methane emissions could increase by 20 to 30 percent across Russia at 2°C warming by 2050.Laura Tuck, World Bank Vice President for Europe and Central Asia, said, “From the Western Balkans to Siberia, from Europe to Central Asia, the impacts of extreme climate events, such as floods, droughts, and forest fires, are already being felt, all with significant human and economic cost, as well as environmental impact. Across the Europe and Central Asia region, countries are requesting our assistance to reduce vulnerability to climate change and move towards climate-smart development. For example, we are supporting Romania in operationalizing its national climate change strategy. We are working with Serbia and Bosnia Herzegovina following the devastating floods that hit earlier this year to strengthen their disaster response preparedness and disaster recovery capacity. We are also working with the Russian Federation to improve forest fire prevention; and we are supporting the countries of Central Asia to establish regional collaboration to enhance climate resilience.”“The report makes crystal clear that we cannot continue down the current path of unchecked, growing emissions. Leaders must step up and take the necessary decisions on how we manage our economies towards clean growth and resilient development,” said Rachel Kyte, World Bank Group Vice President and Special Envoy for Climate Change. “Urgent and substantial technological, economic, institutional and behavioral change is needed to reverse present trends. Economic development and climate protection can be complementary. We need the political will to make this happen.” Show Less -
LAMP is designed to advance real estate cadaster creation, improve registration of services, strengthen capacity to support the planning sector, and further develop the permitting process in Montenegr... Show More +o.Since the project’s inception in 2008, more than 9,000 people have participated in debates on spatial and urban planning, helping to ensure that the concerns of all stakeholders are taken into consideration during project implementation and that the outcomes are as inclusive as possible. These efforts are helping to decrease illegal construction and ensure that buildings – especially public ones – are built according to code, thereby better serving the needs of everyone.“I see improvement – both in the situation in general, as well as in people’s awareness,” said Dejan, following a recent meeting of the working group. “Through direct communication among the networks of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), almost half of the people with disabilities in Cetinje had a voice in the planning process,” he continued.In six years of implementation, the LAMP project has helped bring about a reduction of more than 88% in the construction of illegal buildings – and as a result, increase significantly the number of buildings that Dejan and other people with disabilities can now access more easily.“Every time a new public building is made accessible, I feel that our needs are being reflected,” concludes Dejan.The youth of Cetinje have also benefitted. Last year, a day care center for young people with disabilities opened in the town, with support from the local municipality, the Ministry of Social Care, and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The center accommodates up to 25 young people between the ages of 3 and 27 years, and provides help with their everyday needs.The construction of the day care center, the huge reduction in illegal construction, and the enforcement of laws on spatial planning and construction of structures for accessibility are all highly positive developments for Cetinje, and ultimately for Montenegro.The active participation of people like Dejan Tmusic in working groups that continue to influence these activities is also proof that a single voice, when multiplied several times over, can truly make a difference – for an individual, a community, and an entire country. Show Less -
Washington, D.C., October 29, 2014 - A new World Bank Group report finds that 85 percent of economies in Europe and Central Asia implemented at least one regulatory reform aimed at making it easi... Show More +er for local entrepreneurs to do business in 2013/14, a larger percentage than in any other region.Doing Business 2015: Going Beyond Efficiency shows that in the past year, economies in Europe and Central Asia further improved the regulatory environment for local entrepreneurs, adding to the gains recorded in the past decade. For example, 10 years ago, starting a new business took a Macedonian entrepreneur 48 days. Today, the process can be completed in 2 days.“Economies in Europe and Central Asia have consistently led the world in the pace of regulatory reform,” said Rita Ramalho, Doing Business report lead author, World Bank Group. “Governments’ commitment to improving the regulatory environment for entrepreneurs has allowed them to close the gap with the top performers in some areas. For example, the average time to register property in the region has fallen by 14 days since 2010, making the process faster than in OECD high-income economies.”Doing Business finds that Azerbaijan and Tajikistan were among the top improvers worldwide in 2013/14 in the areas of business regulation measured by the report. Challenges continue in both countries, however. For example, obtaining an electricity connection takes longer for entrepreneurs in these two countries than it does for their counterparts in most other economies in Europe and Central Asia.Challenges persist across the region’s economies even as the regulatory framework for entrepreneurs continues to improve, emphasizing the need for further regulatory reforms. This is particularly so in such areas as construction permitting, getting electricity, and trading across borders, all areas in which the region’s economies are in the bottom half of the global ranking on average.This year, for the first time, Doing Business collected data for a second city in the 11 economies with a population of more than 100 million. In the Russian Federation, the report now analyzes business regulations in both Moscow and St. Petersburg. Differences between cities are common in indicators measuring the steps, time, and cost to complete regulatory transactions where local agencies play a larger role, finds the report.The report this year expands the data for three of the 10 topics covered, and there are plans to do so for five more topics next year. In addition, the ease of doing business ranking is now based on the distance to frontier score. This measure shows how close each economy is to global best practices in business regulation. A higher score indicates a more efficient business environment and stronger legal institutions.The report finds that Singapore tops the global ranking on the ease of doing business. Joining it on the list of the top 10 economies with the most business-friendly regulatory environments are New Zealand; Hong Kong SAR, China; Denmark; the Republic of Korea; Norway; the United States; the United Kingdom; Finland; and Australia.About the Doing Business report series The annual World Bank Group flagship Doing Business report analyzes regulations that apply to an economy’s businesses during their life cycle, including start-up and operations, trading across borders, paying taxes, and resolving insolvency. The aggregate ease of doing business rankings are based on the distance to frontier scores for 10 topics and cover 189 economies.Doing Business does not measure all aspects of the business environment that matter to firms and investors. For example, it does not measure the quality of fiscal management, other aspects of macroeconomic stability, the level of skills in the labor force, or the resilience of financial systems. Its findings have stimulated policy debates worldwide and enabled a growing body of research on how firm-level regulation relates to economic outcomes across economies.Each year the report team works to improve the methodology and to enhance their data collection, analysis and output. The project has benefited from feedback from many stakeholders over the years. With a key goal to provide an objective basis for understanding and improving the local regulatory environment for business around the world, the project goes through rigorous reviews to ensure its quality and effectiveness.This year’s report marks the 12th edition of the global Doing Business report series. For more information about the Doing Business reports, please visit doingbusiness.org and join us on doingbusiness.org/Facebook.About the World Bank GroupThe World Bank Group plays a key role in the global effort to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity. It consists of five institutions: the World Bank, including the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA); the International Finance Corporation (IFC); the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).Working together in more than 100 countries, these institutions provide financing, advice, and other solutions that enable countries to address the most urgent challenges of development.For more information, please visit www.worldbank.org, www.miga.org, and ifc.org.Regional Media Contacts - Europe & Central Asia:Nezhdanan Bukova +7 (985) 411-3986, Email: email@example.comSlobodan Brkic +381 (11) 30-23-750, Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgKristyn Schrader +1 (202) 458-2736, Email: email@example.comElena Karaban +1 (202) 473-9277, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Show Less -