After four decades of little or not growth, the Jamaican economy is expected to grow at 1-2% over the medium term. The country is confronted by serious social issues that predominantly affect youth, such as high levels of crime and violence and high unemployment.
Read More »
ResultsThe following results were achieved under the Jamaica Second HIV/AIDS Project.Prevention91% of female sex workers reporting condom use with their most recent client (target: maintain more than ... Show More +90%).59.2% of female sex workers who received HIV testing in the last 12 months and who know the results (target: 50%).40,445 female sex workers and 22,145 men who have sex with men reached through prevention activities (target: FSW 14,955; MSM 14,059).19% of prison inmates reached through prevention activities (target: 15%)Treatment, Care, and Support10,469 men, women and children with advanced HIV receiving antiretroviral combination therapy according to national guidelines (target: 9,000)85.8% of HIV positive pregnant women receiving a complete course of antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission (target: maintain more than or equal to 80%)1.4% of infants born to HIV infected mothers who are also HIV infected (target: less than 5.0%)More than 95% of antenatal clinic clients counseled and tested for HIV (target: maintain more than 90%)Strengthening Institutional Capacity for Legislative Reform, Policy Formulation, Program Management, Monitoring and Evaluation100% of reported cases of HIV-related discrimination receiving redress (target: 70%)100% of institutions/organizations reached adopting HIV/AIDS policies (target: 93%)Bank Group ContributionThe Bank’s total investment contributions in support of Jamaica’s response to HIV/AIDS include the first loan for US$15 million, which was implemented between March 2002 and May 2008, and the follow-on Second HIV/AIDS Project for US$10 million, implemented between May 2008 and March 2013. PartnersThe project was implemented by the Ministry of Health, its four decentralized regional health authorities, four non-health line ministries, civil society organizations, and the Jamaica Business Council. The project was critical in helping the Government leverage additional donor funds, which included US$44.22 million from the Global Fund and US$26 million from the United States Agency for International Development, President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relieve (USAID/PEPFAR). Based on the sustainability study conducted by the Bank in collaboration with the Government and the United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the Global Fund has provided an additional grant of approximately US$2 million to assist Jamaica during the transition from external to domestic financing of the National HIV/AIDS Program. Show Less -
ResultsThrough the establishment and operation of the CCRIF Caribbean countries’ financial vulnerability to earthquakes and hurricanes has been reduced:The trust fund successfully supported CCRIF’s es... Show More +tablishment and operations by reimbursing it for major operational expenses, reinsurance costs, and claims paid within its risk retention during its first four years. MDTF support enabled CCRIF to retain more of its premium income than would otherwise have been possible, thus accelerating its trajectory towards becoming a financially sustainable, self-standing insurance provider. For 2011-2012, CCRIF had the capacity to pay $150 million in claims, associated with a series of catastrophes of such large magnitude that they are expected to occur only once in every 1,401 years. With CCRIF’s assets over and above US$25 million, it could withstand an even more severe series of events with a modeled probability of occurring only once in every 10,000 years. By both of these measures (dollar amounts and frequency of disaster), CCRIF’s claims paying capacity by far exceeds expectations. The target for CCRIF’s end-of-project claims paying capacity was set in the ISRs at US$110 million, versus the US$150 million achieved for 2011-2012, while the expectation in terms of return period was one in 200 years, versus the one in 1,401 years achieved with reinsurance and US$25 million of CCRIF’s own resources.The 16 Caribbean countries and territories that joined CCRIF in 2007 purchased 29 policies, which they have since renewed annually. Coverage that they have obtained from these policies rose by 26.2 percent from an aggregate of US$494.8 million in 2007-2008 to US$624.4 million in 2011-2012. These policies have provided them with a hedge against the financial risk associated with earthquakes and hurricanes and the certainty of timely support in the event of a disaster of sufficient magnitude to trigger the policy. The seven CCRIF members that have been affected by covered disasters received the additional financial benefit of a rapid infusion of liquidity into their general budgets at a crucial time of particular need. Such budget support has totaled US$32.2 million to date. Show Less -
CHALLENGEThe large share of public resources devoted to debt service and the wage bill has imposed severe constraints on Jamaica’s growth. The public debt- to-GDP ratio averaged 135 percent of GDP in ... Show More +the 2000s and bound 13 percent of GDP to debt servic- ing. In that period, wages and salaries comprised, on average, 31 percent of total expenditures, or 10 percent of GDP.In this context, the Programmatic Debt and Fiscal Sustainability Development Policy Loans supported the reform effort towards enhancing fiscal and debt sustainability, increasing the efficiency of public financial management and budgeting processes, and improving the effective- ness and efficiency of the tax system.SOLUTIONThe Bank supported the Government’s efforts to enhance fiscal and debt sustainability, increase the efficiency of public financial management, and improve the efficiency of the tax system. The Debt and Fiscal Sustainability Development Policy Loan series supported the Government’s reform program in seven policy areas:Fiscal Responsibility Framework.Debt Management.Rationalization of Public Bodies.Public Service Compensation and Incentives.Fiscal Discipline and Strategic Allocation of Resources.Public Financial Management.Tax Efficiency and Administration. Key reforms included: Promoting fiscal and debt sustainability by consolidating overall public sector balances, rationalizing public bodies, and containing the wage bill.Improving transparency and efficiency of public financial management and budget processes by preparing timely financial state- ments, and further advances in auditing and operational capacity to improve the efficiency of budget allocation.Reducing distortions and enhancing the efficiency of the tax system by taking measures to broaden the tax base, reduce the number of special tax regimes and exemptions, simplify tax payment processes, and increase tax compliance. Show Less -
Moving Forward Digital Jam 2.0 has sparked a lot of interest from a number of partners. Private sector partnerships are emerging between national and international players to establish microwork hubs ... Show More +in Jamaica. These will be fully funded by the private sector. The Bank and USAID are negotiating an externally funded output agreement to continue raising awareness about opportunities for work online and, in particular, in the niche of creative industries. The Government of Jamaica has requested the establishment of Digital Jam as a yearly event and the Bank is currently seeking options to make it happen. Bangladesh and Russia have expressed interest in replicating the event.Beneficiaries “We truly believe this is the way forward for Jamaica, and the World Bank is certainly creating the momentum.” - Marcelle Smart, Country Manager, Microsoft Jamaica“The World Bank has provided tremendous support in envisioning the event, bringing appropriate partners together, and facilitating our participation. Future support of this nature would be welcome.” - Anand Pramod Kulkarni, CEO, Mobileworks “We had the opportunity to interact and learn with the game changers from Silicon Valley. It has also inspired our young people to have more confidence in entrepreneurship, by opening our eyes on ways in which we can use our skills and talents, offering first class IT services to the world, right here from our Jamaican IT hub.” - Roxanne Wanliss, a 25 year old participant from Kingston. Show Less -
CHALLENGEMost of the world’s 34 million people living with HIV/AIDS are in developing countries. Worldwide, 2.5 million people became newly-infected with HIV, and 1.5 million died of HIV-related cause... Show More +s in 2011—24 percent fewer deaths than in 2005. Sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 68 percent of all new infections and nearly half of all deaths globally in 2010 occurred in Southern Africa. Even where the overall HIV prevalence is low, AIDS can be a severe burden: It is the leading cause of premature death in Thailand and China. More than 8 million people living with HIV are accessing treatment globally; 7 million who need it do not have it. Moreover, for every one person on treatment, two are infected. Without effective HIV prevention, the numbers requiring treatment will become unsustainable.Despite the global increase in funding during the past decade—from US$1.6 billion in 2001 to US$16.8 billion in 2011—financing gaps persist, and available funds are mainly for treatment. As new infections rise, country and donor investments in prevention are not being sustained. Nearly 90 percent of AIDS spending is from international sources, and the bulk of funding is jeopardized by tight donor and government budgets, household income losses, and worsened food security.SOLUTIONThe Bank’s approach has evolved with the changing HIV/AIDS landscape. When possible, the Bank participates in the pooling of funds, as part of the joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) family and other partners, to ensure more effective and efficient responses in regions and countries, consistent with the UNAIDS vision of zero new infections, zero AIDS-related deaths, and zero discrimination. The Bank responds to country needs within the context of Country Partnership/Assistance Strategies, which take account of support from other partners and the governments’ funding for effective prevention of new HIV infections, care, and treatment. The Bank provides sustained funding for HIV/AIDS programs and supports countries to do “better for less” through improved efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of national AIDS responses.The Bank specifically supports analytical work in six related areas: (i) increasing the efficiency of aid allocations; (ii) program and technical efficiency; (iii) effectiveness studies; (iv) financing and sustainability studies; (v) national strategic planning; and (vi) financing through grants and loans. The Bank also engages in key sectors, such as education, transport, energy, and infrastructure, to bridge gaps in HIV prevention, care and treatment, and mitigation. The Bank supports countries through its knowledge and financing for health systems strengthening; total Bank financing for health (including HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and other diseases) was US$3 billion in FY11 and totaled US$24 billion since 2000. Show Less -