After four decades of little or not growth, the Jamaican economy is expected to grow at 1-2% over the medium term. The country is confronted by serious social issues that predominantly affect youth, such as high levels of crime and violence and high unemployment.
Read More »
ResultsThe following results were achieved under the Jamaica Second HIV/AIDS Project.Prevention91% of female sex workers reporting condom use with their most recent client (target: maintain more than ... Show More +90%).59.2% of female sex workers who received HIV testing in the last 12 months and who know the results (target: 50%).40,445 female sex workers and 22,145 men who have sex with men reached through prevention activities (target: FSW 14,955; MSM 14,059).19% of prison inmates reached through prevention activities (target: 15%)Treatment, Care, and Support10,469 men, women and children with advanced HIV receiving antiretroviral combination therapy according to national guidelines (target: 9,000)85.8% of HIV positive pregnant women receiving a complete course of antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission (target: maintain more than or equal to 80%)1.4% of infants born to HIV infected mothers who are also HIV infected (target: less than 5.0%)More than 95% of antenatal clinic clients counseled and tested for HIV (target: maintain more than 90%)Strengthening Institutional Capacity for Legislative Reform, Policy Formulation, Program Management, Monitoring and Evaluation100% of reported cases of HIV-related discrimination receiving redress (target: 70%)100% of institutions/organizations reached adopting HIV/AIDS policies (target: 93%)Bank Group ContributionThe Bank’s total investment contributions in support of Jamaica’s response to HIV/AIDS include the first loan for US$15 million, which was implemented between March 2002 and May 2008, and the follow-on Second HIV/AIDS Project for US$10 million, implemented between May 2008 and March 2013. PartnersThe project was implemented by the Ministry of Health, its four decentralized regional health authorities, four non-health line ministries, civil society organizations, and the Jamaica Business Council. The project was critical in helping the Government leverage additional donor funds, which included US$44.22 million from the Global Fund and US$26 million from the United States Agency for International Development, President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relieve (USAID/PEPFAR). Based on the sustainability study conducted by the Bank in collaboration with the Government and the United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the Global Fund has provided an additional grant of approximately US$2 million to assist Jamaica during the transition from external to domestic financing of the National HIV/AIDS Program. Show Less -
Bank ContributionThe total amount contributed to the Multi-donor Trust fund was US$67.4 million of which US$10 Million was financed by IBRD. Other contributing donors were CDB, European Commission, DF... Show More +ID, French Republic, Canada, Bermuda and Ireland. With net interest income, the MDTF resources grew over time to US$ 70,997,902.39.PartnersCCRIF will continue its partnerships with other Caribbean institutions, bilateral donors, and the World Bank with a view to helping to strengthen disaster risk management in the Caribbean. Moving ForwardCCRIF’s next important institutional step is to market its excess rainfall product. The product was launched in the 2012-2013 financial year, the availability of this product is expected to lead to some expansion of CCRIF’s membership. In addition, CCRIF is working with the Munich Climate Insurance Initiative (MCII) to develop parametric micro and portfolio insurance products of two sorts, which are expected to be piloted in three CCRIF countries: Grenada, Jamaica, and St. Lucia. The first would be a livelihood protection product for small scale producers and businesses that would provide payouts following weather-related natural disasters of pre-determined magnitudes in order to offset a portion of their income and other economic losses from the disasters. The second would be a product for institutions such as credit unions and development banks that have significant portfolios of loans to individuals and micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises. The product would provide coverage to the credit institutions against the risk of losses in its portfolio due to defaults arising from the impact of weather-related events on the borrowers’ debt service capacity.BeneficiariesThe primary beneficiaries of CCRIF are the 16 member governments. They benefit from: (i) being able to transfer a portion of their hurricane and earthquake risk to the Facility at a price lower than what they would pay if they were able to obtain coverage individually in international insurance markets; and (ii) from receiving a prompt cash payout following a covered event. A secondary benefit is a more favorable investor sentiment, particularly in the tourism sector, stimulated by investors’ greater confidence in the governments’ disaster risk management strategy and ability to overcome quickly the damage caused by the disaster. A number of officials from member country agencies – e.g., ministries of finance, departments of insurance supervisors, national disaster management offices, and national meteorological and hydrological services (NMHS) – have benefited from CCRIF’s support for their participation in a range of professional development activities sponsored by CCRIF itself or by others. Finally, undergraduate and graduate-level students have benefited from CCRIF scholarships for studies in insurance, disaster risk management, civil and environmental engineering, geology and geography, and related fields Show Less -
WORLD BANK GROUP CONTRIBUTIONThe Bank’s support consisted of two single tranche loans and technical assistance. The first single tranche loan of US$200 million was approved on February 23, 2010. The s... Show More +econd single tranche loan of US$100 million was approved on September 8, 2011. Both operations disbursed upon loan effectiveness. The programmatic structure of the Debt and Fiscal Sustainability DPLs provided Jamaica and the Bank the necessary flexibility in a fairly uncertain environment. The Bank’s technical assistance supported institutional capacity building and advancing public sector reform.PARTNERSThe loans were part of a multilateral package of support from international financial institutions and donors, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), the European Union (EU), and the Inter- American Development Bank (IDB). The package was designed to provide market liquidity and reduce risks to participants in the debt exchange, while supporting the Government’s medium-term reform program. There was a good level of donor coordination. Fiscal and debt sustainability was given priority in all donors’ programs.On February 4, 2010, the IMF approved a 27-month Stand-By Arrangement in the amount of US$1.25 billion to manage short-term difficulties and support the longer-term reform agenda. While this program went off track a year later, the Fund remained in close dialogue with the authorities and is currently working with them to put a new program in place.MOVING FORWARDDuring a Bank mission to Jamaica in August 2012, the Government requested further technical assistance. The proposed team to deliver technical assistance would include a resident advisor to work with the Expenditure Division in the Ministry of Finance on budget processing, a consultant to work with the Public Enterprise Division on post-privati- zation monitoring and other issues, and a specialist who could work with the Ministry of Finance on consolidating and taking forward various initiatives on public sector reform.BENEFICIARIESThe operations benefited the Government and the Jamaican people because they improved tax administration and enhanced economic growth and competitiveness. Show Less -
Bank Group ContributionThe World Bank provided roughly US$200,000 of technical assistance to design and implement this program.Additional resources were provided by Flow Columbus Business Solutions, t... Show More +he JNBS Group, Landline Internet Mobile and Entertainment Services (LIME), USAID, Microsoft Jamaica, Research in Motion (RIM) Blackberry, Telegens, and Kariblink. These consisted of about US$100,000 in cash, prizes for competitions, air-time on television and radio stations, connectivity costs, and the renting of the event facilities. A strong endorsement was given by the Government of Jamaica including the Minister of Youth and Culture, the Minister of Industry, Investment and Commerce, and the Minister of Science, Technology, Energy and Mining. Partnerships were also established with industry leaders, including key companies from the Silicon Valley such as Samasource, Microworkers, MobileWorks, Freelancer (from Australia), Soundtracker, Wildfire Interactive, and 500 Startups. Show Less -
Other ResultsThe World Bank, in partnership with various organizations, led three separate studies in a three-part series on key populations at higher risk (sex workers, people who inject drugs, and m... Show More +en who have sex with men ) in low- and middle-income countries:Partnership with UNAIDS, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the World Health Organization (WHO): A study by the Bank and these partners, entitled “The Global HIV Epidemics Among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): Epidemiology, Prevention, Access to Care, and Human Rights,” evaluates global costs of inaction in addressing HIV within this population, critically reviews epidemiological evidence of HIV transmission, rigorously reviews the evidence of efficacy and intervention costs, and models the costs and impact of addressing the needs of this population in various epidemic contexts. The report has found that addressing this aspect significantly affects a country’s HIV epidemic—even in generalized epidemic scenarios such as those in Sub- Saharan Africa.Partnerships with United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health: A study by the Bank and these partners, entitled “The Global HIV Epidemics Among Sex Workers: Epidemiology, Prevention, Access to Care, and Human Rights,” found that a community empowerment approach to HIV prevention, treatment, and care is cost-effective, with significant projected impact on HIV incidence among sex workers and transmission beyond the sex worker community. The study emphasizes the central importance of adopting a rights-affirming, empowerment-based approach to scale up comprehensive HIV services, and addressing stigma, discrimination, and violence against sex workers.Partnerships with the Futures Group and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health: A study by the Bank and these partners, entitled “The Global HIV Epidemics Among People who Inject Drugs: Epidemiology, Prevention, Access to Care, and Human Rights,” predicted that continuing to specifically target injecting drug users with needle and syringe programs, medically assisted therapy and HIV counseling and testing, as well as increased access to antiretroviral treatment, could avert thousands of infections from 2012-2015, including 1,300 in Kenya, 4,130 in Pakistan, 1,570 in Thailand, and 3,900 in Ukraine. Interventions for people who inject drugs are cost-effective or highly cost-effective investment choices across the breadth of the global epidemic.Argentina, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, Paraguay: In 2010, following a Bank study, several governments reallocated their budgets to more effectively target prevention, a critical step in the process of scaling up programs and ensuring that they are sustainable. Resource allocation to most at-risk populations increased nine-fold, compared with 2008. A total of US$27 million was allocated to men who have sex with men in 2010, up from US$1.1 million in 2008. Projects focused on sex workers saw similar gains, with US$10 million allocated in 2010 instead of the US$1.8 million spent in 2008. There were also significant increases in money allocated to campaigns aimed at prisoners and injecting drug users.Burkina Faso, Kenya, Lesotho, India, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Zimbabwe: In partnership with DFID, the United Kingdom Consortium on AIDS and International Development, and other partners, the Bank completed a three-year evaluation, Investing in Communities Achieves Results, an evaluation to better understand the impact of the community response to HIV and AIDS in eight countries. Findings indicate that investments have produced results at the community level that contributes to the desired outcomes of the global response to AIDS. Ten evaluation studies provide strong evidence that specific community interventions can affect the course of the epidemic by increasing HIV knowledge, reducing stigma, and increasing condom use, HIV testing uptake, treatment adherence, and use of services. The studies also show that community-based actions play a pivotal complementary role to national programs by providing services to rural communities and high-risk groups, which would otherwise have none. Further, the studies reveal that community-based organizations—many of which operate on small annual budgets between US$15,000 and $25,000—are doing much with little. The Bank leveraged DFID financing for the evaluation by mobilizing additional funding by 30 percent and increasing intra-Bank collaboration. The evaluation has attracted support from other global partners including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, USAID, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Fund and UNAIDS. The new UNAIDS investment framework, unveiled in July 2011, places community mobilization at the center of AIDS programming, and the evaluation is contributing valuable data to this global effort. Finally, the active involvement of civil society in all eight countries and globally through the United Kingdom Consortium on AIDS and International Development has demonstrated the strong engagement of civil society in the evaluation and the Bank’s commitment to work effectively with them.East Asia and the Pacific: The Bank has provided technical assistance to countries to ensure that available resources for HIV/AIDS are prioritized and targeted to effective interventions. Since 2010, the Bank has provided cost-effectiveness analysis trainings and results-management workshops in Indonesia, Thailand, and China, which have trained more than 70 public officials in the use of economic tools to improve national and sub-national strategic planning for HIV/AIDS.Kenya, Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Uganda, and Zambia: The Bank’s analytical work on HIV transmission dynamics and impact evaluations to generate evidence on what works in prevention in various epidemic contexts has resulted in major policy and program shifts. In Uganda, Kenya, Lesotho, Swaziland, Zambia, Mozambique, and South Africa, the Bank’s support to HIV epidemiological, policy, and response syntheses has resulted in the development and/or revision of national HIV programs. Uganda doubled its prevention funding and agreed to focus on couples in HIV prevention. The synthesis report helped Kenya shape its national strategy and operational plans; in Lesotho and Mozambique, the findings helped inform strategic planning; and Zambia held its first HIV prevention summit. In South Africa, the new national HIV strategic plan reflects the Bank’s policy advice to characterize the epidemic and improve prevention programming.Malawi, Tanzania: A study by the Bank showed that conditional cash payments to men and young women in Malawi and Tanzania were linked to significantly lower HIV and other sexually transmitted infection rates than in other groups in the same communities. Eighteen months after the program began, new HIV infections among girls in the program were 60 percent lower than among those who were part of a control group and did not receive payments.Niger: In Niger the Bank supported the epidemiological analysis of HIV transmission dynamics and the adequacy of the government response. This support helped to identify new priorities and to inform the design of the Bank-funded US$20-million AIDS project, which focuses resources on most at-risk populations, increasing the efficiency of the health system. Similar epidemiological analysis in Benin and Ghana informed the priority setting and allocation of resources for key populations at risk in the two countries.Middle East and North Africa: The Bank developed a groundbreaking HIV report that has led to program shifts. “Characterizing the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in MENA” shows how focusing investments on prevention efforts for priority populations at increased risk of HIV infection can yield long-term health and social benefits. As a result, the governments of Egypt, Morocco, Jordan, Sudan, and Syria have increased their resource allocation to most at-risk populations, placing them at the center of their response.Colombia: In Colombia, the Bank worked closely with the ministry of health to conduct a study of the implementation efficiency of the national HIV/AIDS program. The study addressed three main domains: efficiency of resource allocations, programmatic efficiency, and services delivery efficiency. The study shows that while the AIDS program is fully embedded in the national social security system, the complexity of the services delivery system poses challenges for coordination of services.South Africa: In Kwa-Zulu Natal, the province in South Africa with the highest HIV prevalence, the Bank has initiated a fund-tracking study to look at whether the significant HIV funds Kwa-Zulu Natal attracts from the national government and donors – as well as the province’s own funds – are reaching the intended beneficiaries, and are targeting the right prevention priorities. Data will enable the provincial government to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of public spending on HIV/AIDS programs, and ultimately make appropriate changes to improve HIV responses across Kwa-Zulu Natal.Ukraine: Through its strategic planning role, the Bank is focusing on the most-at-risk groups such as injecting drug users and sex workers. Ukraine is the country most affected by the HIV epidemic in the Europe and Central Asia region. Show Less -