Ana Margarida Fernandes is a Senior Economist in the Development Research Group (Trade and International Integration Unit). She joined the World Bank as a Young Economist in 2002. Her research examines the consequences of openness to trade and FDI for firm-level outcomes such as productivity, innovation and quality upgrading in manufacturing and services sectors. She has studied more broadly the determinants of firm-level performance, including the role of the business environment, in Asia, Central America and Eastern Europe. She has also worked on professional services in Africa and on agglomeration of manufacturing industries in India. Recently she has been focusing on the impact evaluation of trade-related policy interventions (such as export promotion) and on exporter growth and dynamics and its determinants in developing countries. Since 2011 she has been managing the Exporter Dynamics Database project. She received her M.A., M. Phil., and Ph.D. in Economics from Yale University and a B.A. from Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.