Deborah Winkler is a consultant economist in the World Bank’s Trade and Competitiveness Global Practice. Her fields of interest include international trade, global value chains, trade in services, foreign direct investment, welfare effects of international trade and offshoring, and applied (micro-)econometrics. She is the author of Outsourcing Economics: Global Value Chains in Capitalist Development (with William Milberg) and Services Offshoring and Its Impact on the Labor Market and the editor of Making Foreign Direct Investment Work for Sub-Saharan Africa: Local Spillovers and Competitiveness in Global Value Chains (with Thomas Farole). Her recent articles have appeared in World Development, the Journal of Economic Geography , and World Economy as well as in edited volumes of the World Bank, the International Labour Office and World Trade Organization, and the Oxford Handbook Series. She received her Ph.D. in Economics from Hohenheim University in Germany.