Deborah Winkler is a Senior Consultant in the World Bank Group’s Trade and Competitiveness Global Practice. Deborah has worked on issues of global value chains, export competitiveness, foreign direct investment, trade in services, and the welfare effects of international trade and offshoring. She is the author of Making Global Value Chains Work for Development (with Daria Taglioni), Outsourcing Economics: Global Value Chains in Capitalist Development (with William Milberg) and Services Offshoring and Its Impact on the Labor Market. Ms. Winkler is the editor of Making Foreign Direct Investment Work for Sub-Saharan Africa: Local Spillovers and Competitiveness in Global Value Chains (with Thomas Farole). Her recent articles have appeared in World Development, Journal of Economic Geography, and World Economy, as well as edited volumes by the World Bank Group, Centre for Economic Policy Research, International Labour Office and World Trade Organization, and Oxford Handbook Series. She received her PhD in economics from Hohenheim University in Germany.