Public Sector Management and Institutions (Cluster D) also referred to as the Governance Cluster—covers property rights and rule-based governance; quality of budgetary and financial management; efficiency of revenue mobilization; quality of public administration; and transparency, accountability, and corruption in the public sector. The COVID-19-related stress on public sector management and institutions was reflected in the sustained low average score for Cluster D, which remained at 2.9 for the Africa region in 2021, the same level as in the previous two years, and lagged all the other clusters. The average scores for each of the five components of the cluster were broadly similar to their levels in 2020. The transparency and accountability component continued to post the lowest average score within the Governance Cluster, followed by the property rights, rule-based governance, and quality of public administration components. Although the revenue mobilization, budgetary, and financial management components had the highest average scores, they continued downward trends, and relatively more countries experienced a decrease than an increase in their scores on these components.