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Living Standards Measurement Study

LSMS+

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The Living Standards Measurement Study – Plus (LSMS+) is a project established with grants from the Umbrella Facility for Gender Equality Trust Fund, the World Bank Trust Fund for Statistical Capacity Building, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development, and is implemented by the World Bank LSMS Team, in collaboration with the World Bank Gender Group and partner national statistical offices. 

The LSMS+ project aims to improve the availability and quality of individual-disaggregated household survey data, and is, at start, a direct response to the World Bank IDA18 commitment to support 6 IDA countries in collecting intra-household, sex-disaggregated household survey data on 1) ownership of and rights to selected physical and financial assets, 2) work and employment, and 3) entrepreneurship – following international best practices in questionnaire design and minimizing the use of proxy respondents while collecting personal information. Besides data production, LSMS Plus also provides support to methodological research and updating of operational guidelines on individual-disaggregated survey data collection in priority topics.

The work builds on the World Bank partnerships with (1) United Nations Evidence and Data for Gender Equality (EDGE) Project on methodological experimentation and international guidelines on measuring asset ownership and control from a gender perspective, and (2) the International Labour Organization and the Data2X project on methodological experimentation related to operationalization of the new definitions of work and employment, with a focus on subsistence agriculture.

As of September 2019, the surveys directly supported by the LSMS+ include: Malawi Integrated Household Panel Survey, Tanzania National Panel Survey – Extended Panel, Ethiopia Socio-Economic Survey, Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey and the Nepal Living Standards Survey. LSMS+ aims to provide financial and technical assistance to one additional survey in an IDA country in 2019/20.


  • The 2016 round of the Malawi Integrated Household Panel Survey (IHPS) was the first survey that was supported under the LSMS+.

    The IHPS 2016 was implemented by the National Statistical Office with technical and financial support from the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) initiative and the LSMS+, using the World Bank Survey Solutions Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) platform.

    The survey covered a nationally-representative sample of 2,508 households that had been previously interviewed in 2013 and 2010. With support from LSMS+, the IHPS 2016 attempted to interview all adult household members (18 years and above) in private, regarding labor and ownership of and rights to selected physical and financial assets, as well as education and health. The individual interviews were conducted following the administration of all applicable questionnaires (household and agriculture); simultaneously, if possible; and with a gender match between the enumerators and the respondents.

    On assets, specifically, the individual questionnaire included questionnaire modules that collected asset-level information on respondents’ personal (whether exclusive or joint) ownership (and rights, if applicable) for the following asset classes: dwelling and residential parcel; agricultural parcels; financial accounts; and mobile phones. The questions on “ownership” attempted to focus, separately, on reported ownership, documented ownership, and/or economic ownership, depending on the asset class.

    The resulting data and documentation are publicly available at the World Bank Microdata Library.

  • The 2019/20 round of the Tanzania National Panel Survey – Extended Panel with Sex-Disaggregated Data Collection (NPS-SDD) is the second survey that is being supported under the LSMS+.

    The NPS-SDD 2019/20 is implemented by the National Bureau of Statistics with technical and financial support from the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) initiative and the LSMS+, using the World Bank Survey Solutions Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) platform.

    The survey covers a nationally-representative sample of 900 households that had been previously interviewed by the NPS in 2008/09, 2010/11, 2012/13, and 2014/15. With support from LSMS+, the NPS-SDD 2019/20 will interview all adult household members (18 years and above) in private, regarding labor and ownership of and rights to selected physical and financial assets, among other topics. The fieldwork spans the period February 2019-December 2019.

    On assets, the individual questionnaire includes a parcel-level module that is recommended by FAO, World Bank, and UN Habitat (2019) for sex-disaggregated data collection on both SDG indicators 1.4.2 and 5.a.1 - covering all land owned or accessed via use rights, irrespective of specific type of land use. The parcels that are identified as part of the household interview will be fed forward into the interview of each adult household member, and the respondents will be asked in private to report on their personal reported, economic and documented ownership of and rights to each parcel (whether exclusive or joint). In addition, they will provide parcel-level data regarding their perceived tenure security. This module will be complemented with additional asset-level modules on soliciting information on respondents’ personal ownership for the following asset classes: dwelling, financial accounts, and mobile phones.

    Further, the existing individual-level NPS-SDD modules on labor, education and health will be part of the individual questionnaire. On labor, the module will collect the required information for the new definitions of work and employment, as endorsed by the 19th International Conference of Labour Statisticians. And for the purposes of the existing module on household non-farm enterprises (NFEs), the enumerators will ensure that the respondent for each NFE is the associated manager.

    Below is the NPS-SDD 2019/20 household questionnaire, augmented with the modules that are collecting individual-level/individual-disaggregated data of interest.

    Download NPS-SDD 2019/20 Household Questionnaire

  • The 2018/19 round of the Ethiopia Socioeconomic Survey (ESS) was the third survey supported under the LSMS+.

    The ESS 2018/19 was implemented by the Central Statistical Agency with technical and financial support from the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) initiative and the LSMS+ project, using the World Bank Survey Solutions Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) platform.

    The survey covers a nationally-representative sample of 7,200 households. With support from LSMS+, the ESS 2018/19 attempted to interview all adult household members (18 years and above) in private, regarding labor and ownership of and rights to selected physical and financial assets, among other topics. The fieldwork spanned the period of June-August 2019.

    The implementation of the individual questionnaire was slightly different in Ethiopia, considering (a) all land is state-owned in Ethiopia (as such the scope of questions on rights to land will be limited) and (b) the ESS relies on resident enumerators responsible for entire EAs rather than the mobile survey teams.

    On assets, the individual questionnaire included a parcel-level module that is recommended by FAO, World Bank, and UN Habitat (2019) for sex-disaggregated data collection on both SDG indicators 1.4.2 and 5.a.1 - covering all land owned or accessed via use rights, irrespective of specific type of land use. The parcels that are rostered as part of the post-planting visit in 2018 were carried forward, updated with additional parcels in 2019, as applicable. The parcels were in turn fed forward into the interview of each adult household member, and the respondents were asked in private to report on their personal reported, economic and documented ownership of and (a limited set of) rights to each parcel (whether exclusive or joint). In addition, they provided parcel-level data regarding their perceived tenure security. This module was complemented with additional asset-level modules on soliciting information on respondents’ personal ownership for the following asset classes: dwelling, livestock, financial accounts, and mobile phones.

    Further, the existing individual-level ESS modules on labor , education and health were part of the individual questionnaire. On labor, the module will collect the required information for the new definitions of work and employment, as endorsed by the 19th International Conference of Labour Statisticians. And for the purposes of the existing module on household non-farm enterprises (NFEs), the enumerators will ensure that the respondent for each NFE is the associated manager.

    The ESS 2018/19 had three visits to each household. The post-planting questionnaire, the post-harvest questionnaire, and the household and individual questionnaires were administered in the first, second, and third visit, respectively. Below is the ESS 2018/19 household questionnaire, augmented with the modules that are collecting individual-level/individual-disaggregated data of interest. As noted above, the list of parcels were fed forward from the prior visits.

  • The 2019/20 round of the Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey is the fourth survey that is being supported under the LSMS+.

    The CSES 2019/20 is implemented by the National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia and covers a nationally-representative sample of 10,080 households and 1,080 enumeration areas (EAs). With support from LSMS+, the CSES 2019/20 will cover 6 additional households in each of 252 EAs to be visited during the period of October-December 2019, for a total of 1,512 households. In each sampled household, all adult household members (18 years and above) will be interviewed in private, regarding labor and ownership of and rights to selected physical and financial assets, among other topics.

    On assets, the individual questionnaire includes a parcel-level module that is recommended by FAO, World Bank, and UN Habitat (2019) for sex-disaggregated data collection on both SDG indicators 1.4.2 and 5.a.1 - covering all land owned or accessed via use rights, irrespective of specific type of land use. The parcels that are identified as part of the household interview will be fed forward into the interview of each adult household member, and the respondents will be asked in private to report on their personal reported, economic and documented ownership of and rights to each parcel (whether exclusive or joint). In addition, they will provide parcel-level data regarding their perceived tenure security. This module will be complemented with additional asset-level modules on soliciting information on respondents’ personal ownership for the following asset classes: apartments, livestock, financial accounts, durables, and mobile phones.

    Further, the individual-level modules on labor, education, health, time use, internal migration and international migration are part of the individual questionnaire. On labor, the module collects the required information for the new definitions of work and employment, as endorsed by the 19th International Conference of Labour Statisticians. And for the purposes of the existing CSES module on household non-farm enterprises (NFEs), the enumerators will ensure that the respondent for each NFE is the associated manager.

    Below is the link to the questionnaire that is being administered to the LSMS+ household sample in Cambodia.

  • The 2019/20 round of the Nepal Living Standards Survey is the fifth survey that is being supported under the LSMS+.

    The NLSS 2019/20 is implemented by the Central Bureau of Statistics and covers a nationally-representative sample of 9,000 households and 750 enumeration areas (EAs). With support from LSMS+, 756 NLSS households from 63 EAs (slotted for the second month of NLSS fieldwork) will be tracked and revisited, and all adult household members (18 years and above) will be interviewed in private, regarding labor and ownership of and rights to selected physical and financial assets, among other topics.

    On assets, the individual questionnaire includes a parcel-level module that is recommended by FAO, World Bank, and UN Habitat (2019) for sex-disaggregated data collection on both SDG indicators 1.4.2 and 5.a.1 - covering all land owned or accessed via use rights, irrespective of specific type of land use. The parcels that are identified as part of the household interview will be fed forward into the interview of each adult household member, and the respondents will be asked in private to report on their personal reported, economic and documented ownership of and rights to each parcel (whether exclusive or joint). In addition, they will provide parcel-level data regarding their perceived tenure security. This module will be complemented with additional asset-level modules on soliciting information on respondents’ personal ownership for the following asset classes: apartments, livestock, financial accounts, durables, and mobile phones.

    Further, the individual-level modules on labor, education, health, time use, internal migration and international migration will be part of the individual questionnaire. On labor, the module will collect the required information for the new definitions of work and employment, as endorsed by the 19th International Conference of Labour Statisticians. And for the purposes of the existing NLSS module on household non-farm enterprises (NFEs), the enumerators will ensure that the respondent for each NFE is the associated manager.