India's Land Challenge
As India continues to urbanize and move towards a less agricultural and more industry-based economy, land demands will continue to grow. Urban population is expected to increase by more than 200 million by 2030, requiring 4 - 8 million hectares of land for residential use alone. Increasing demands for infrastructure and industry are also putting pressure on land. If not handled well, such massive land use change may increase vulnerability and food insecurity, rent-seeking, environmental problems, social dislocation, inequality, and conflict.
Meeting the Challenge with an Evidence-based, Participatory Approach
Six Indian states, Andhra Pradesh (undivided), Bihar, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Odisha, and West Bengal, requested support from the World Bank to conduct a self-assessment using the LGAF. In India, the exercise uniquely brought together a Technical Advisory Group comprising eminent Indian experts in the field of land governance - from government, private sector, academia, and civil society organizations as part of the process. The results, documented in six state reports, and synthesized in a National Report, provide a comprehensive evidence-based assessment of land issues.
|National Synthesis Report|
A compilation of scorecards for all six states is also available for download (XLSX).
The Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF) is based on the key principle of a participatory process organized around a steering committee composed of local experts. The process is facilitated by a country coordinator who is a locally recognized and independent land expert with a broad network within and outside government.
The implementation of the LGAF starts with a country coordinator adapting the framework to the country context. The country coordinator then selects a team of technical experts for each of the framework's nine topic areas (see Framework section below). The coordinator also agrees with the ministry responsible for land matters on access to data and participation of government staff in panel meetings. The objective of the LGAF is to be constructive, rather than evaluative, and to be based on the evidence that already exists rather than on extensive new studies.
Technical experts prepare background reports that bring together available data and information and suggest ratings for each of a comprehensive set of 116 land governance dimensions. This report is then discussed thoroughly in daylong technical panels with knowledgeable stakeholders from the government, civil society, academia, and the private sector. The resulting policy recommendations are technical, rather than political, and are objective, replicable, and actionable.
The reports, panel documents, and agreed minutes are then synthesized in a country report that is publicly validated with results and recommendations presented to policy makers. The World Bank frequently organizes a high-level policy dialogue with the government to discuss key conclusions and policy recommendations.
The task of assigning a rating to each of the 116 dimensions is distributed among nine technical panels. Typically these panels are comprised of between three and eight members who are subject matter specialists on different aspects of the relevant issues. The nine panels are organized around the following topics:
For a detailed explanation of the LGAF framework, see the Complete Annotated Framework.
Structure and Scoring
Each of the 116 dimensions are rated on a 4-point scale (A to D, with A as good practice and D as weak practice). Expert panels rate these dimensions by selecting an appropriate answer among a list of pre-coded statements that draw on global experience. Depending on the country context, a few dimensions may not be eligible for scoring, or sub-dimensions can be added.
The LGAF scoring structure was developed on the basis of extensive interaction with land professionals and refined through pilot country case studies. The LGAF is not intended as a tool to rank countries; rather, the scoring is developed to guide discussion in-country and arrive at a consensus using objective criteria. Scores can be used to identify good practice in other countries.
The broad steps of the LGAF are:
For an in-depth discussion of all aspects of the LGAF process and implementation, see the Resources tab.
* The LGAF methodology underwent a revision in 2013 that expanded the number of dimensions from 80 to 116. A compilation of scorecards for LGAFs completed prior to 2013 is also available (XLSX).
Klaus Deininger, Harris Selod and Tony Burns, November 2011
This book presents the LGAF tool and includes detailed pilot case studies on implementation in five selected countries: Peru, the Kyrgyz Republic, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and Tanzania. Experience also shows that the use of a consistent framework facilitates transfer of good practice across countries.
Deininger, K., T. Hilhorst. 2013. "Using the Land Governance Assessment Framework to Help Secure Rural Land Rights: Framework and Experience Thus Far." In Land Tenure Reform in Asia and Africa, 354-379. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Deininger, K., T. Hilhorst, and V. Songwe. 2014. "Identifying and addressing land governance constraints to support intensification and land market operation: Evidence from 10 African countries." Food Policy 48: 76-87.
Countries that implement an LGAF assign ratings for each of the 116 dimensions laid out in the framework. These ratings are summarized in a "scorecard" for each country that can be accessed under the Country Reports tab. These individual scorecards have been compiled into a single file showing all LGAF scorecards completed since 2013 that allows for comparison and identifcation of good practice across countries (XLSX).
In 2013, the LGAF underwent a revision of its methodology that expanded the number of dimensions from 80 to 116. A compilation of scorecards for LGAFs completed prior to 2013 is also available (XLSX).