Addressing Land Issues in Turkey

April 15, 2014

World Bank Group

With the objective of enhancing land registry and cadastre service quality in Turkey, the Turkey Land Registry and Cadastre Modernization Project helped renovate and update cadastre maps to digitize cadastre and land registry information and improve public and private access to it. The project also enhanced human resource capacity and customer services in land registry and cadastre offices, and developed policies to introduce best international practices in property valuation.

Challenge

In 1950, only about 25 percent of Turkey’s population lived in cities. During the early 1980s and over the ensuing three decades, the country’s average annual urban growth rate of over 4 percent placed it among the fastest urbanizing countries in the world, and today, over 77 percent of its population now resides in urban areas. However, the land and property value generated through this rapid urbanization has not been fully or accurately captured by means of a realistic taxation system, creating a significant challenge for municipalities in their effort to finance huge infrastructure and social service needs.

The Turkish cadastre system, with a history going back some 165 years, was reasonably effective, and property registration transactions were done relatively quickly. However, the system was in serious need of modernization to upgrade it to the same service standards found in the European Union (EU), which presented numerous challenges. The manual systems in several cadastral and registry offices needed to be computerized and paper documents digitized to improve accuracy, consistency, efficiency, and linkage to a national network that can support e-government applications. Property valuation methodologies for taxation purposes also needed to be upgraded toward similar systems in the EU, requiring a clarification of institutional responsibilities in order to provide a framework for property valuation guidelines and grievance procedures in line with international standards.

Solution

Since its inception in 2008, the Land Registry and Cadastre Modernization Project followed a comprehensive approach that combined detailed technical work, such as cadastral surveys, mapping, and digitization, with “softer” elements such as the improvement of human resource capacity. All of these components were put in place with the establishment of a model cadastral office in the city of Bursa, which now serves as an example to the remaining Land Registry and Cadastre Offices around the country.

Under a second component known as Property Valuation, an innovative policy analysis and pilot implementation are being done to develop a mass valuation system for property taxation purposes. This will not only help increase government property tax revenues at the national and local levels, but also enable Turkey to better capture the prosperity generated by the rapid urbanization and allow that prosperity to be more evenly shared. This will be a significant step forward for Turkey in overall land governance.

Results

Between April 2008 and October 2013, the land registry project in Turkey achieved the following key results:

  • Customer satisfaction with land registry and cadastre services improved from 40 to 85 percent.
  • Cadastre disputes in courts declined from 4 to 0.3 percent of the total renovated parcels (end-of-project target was 2 percent).
  • The time to deliver cadastral data decreased from seven days to two hours, reaching the project target.
  • 100 external users from 42 different organizations in the country now have online/offline access to registry and cadastre data, which exceeded the project target of 50 external users.
  • 30 million information requests have been received over the Internet, exceeding the project target of 9 million.
  • About 1.5 million parcels have been renovated or upgraded into a digital format. 
  • The base mapping of 144,000 square kilometers (including orthophotos) has already been completed, exceeding the increased target of 140,000 square kilometers (the original target was 40,000).


" In the past, we didn’t know the exact borders of our fields, and people were constantly violating each other’s land, but now the borders are well-defined. "

Mehmet Kömürcü

farmer from the Kazan subprovince

Image









Bank Group Contribution

The Turkey Land Registry and Cadastre Modernization Project was supported by an International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan of €135 million.

Partners

The primary partner was the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC), which produces and manages the land registry, cadastre, and property ownership information and data.

Leveraging the Bank’s ongoing partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) enabled the team to invite top experts from various technical areas, including property valuation. The FAO team not only provided high-quality implementation support through regular missions, but also organized follow-up visits and participated in several events organized by Turkey’s General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (TKGM).

The project and the GDLRC also benefited from recently established cooperation with the Romanian Cadastre and Land Registration Agency (ANCPI). A small GDLRC delegation visited Romania in August 2013 to learn from ANCPI’s experiences, enabling the GDLRC to tailor its own program accordingly.

Moving Forward

Despite the project’s achievements, much remains to be done in order to have a functional property valuation system in Turkey going forward. With the adoption of a new Metropolitan Municipality Law, 14 new metropolitan municipalities will be established immediately after local elections, expanding the municipal boundaries to match provincial boundaries in all metropolitan cities. As a result, significantly more urban land will be available in all of the 30 metropolitan cities. A well-functioning property valuation system is necessary to support this transformation. The World Bank currently is providing technical assistance to improve GDLRC’s Strategic Plan for 2015–19, to be followed by an assessment of the overall land governance framework in Turkey.

Beneficiaries

Mehmet Kömürcü, a farmer and land owner who lives in Kazan, a subprovince of Ankara, says fertile fields have long been the source of his and other farmers’ livelihoods in the region. Until recently though, the land could also be a source of disputes.

“In the past, we didn’t know the exact borders of our fields, and people were constantly violating each other’s land," sKömürcü, "but now the borders are well-defined.”

Mehmet Sayım, a contractor in Bursa province, says it now takes him less than half the time it used to in order to buy or sell property. Thanks to the project, most of the related paper work is now in one place.

“It has become faster, sales are no trouble, and you get text messages when it is time to pay the taxes,” notes Sayim.


Image
144,000
Number of square kilometers base mapped under this project to date.


PROJECT MAP