Sustainable Communities https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/taxonomy/term/7261/all en #1 from 2017: Future jobs for youth in agriculture and food systems: Learning from our backyard in DC https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/1-2017-future-jobs-youth-agriculture-and-food-systems-learning-our-backyard-dc <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><div> <em>Our Top Ten blog posts by readership in 2017. This post was <a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/future-jobs-youth-agriculture-and-food-systems-learning-our-backyard-dc" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">originally posted</a> on March 14, 2017.</em><br />  </div> <div> <a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/1_6.jpg" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><img alt="" height="305" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/1_6.jpg" style="float:left" title="Growing high value green vegetables using hydroponics, Firebird Farm, Maryland" width="229" /></a>When we think of agriculture and food, we think of a farmer working in a rural area producing food for consumption and selling some surplus.  With growing urbanization and increasing demand for food, food system has moved away from just agricultural production. It involves aggregating, value addition, processing, logistics, food preparation, restaurants and other related services.  Many enterprises from small to large are part of the enterprise ecosystem.  The potential for new jobs for youth who start and are also employed by their enterprises is significant. The Africa Agriculture Innovation Network (AAIN) has developed a business agenda targeting establishment of at least 108 incubators in 54 African countries in the next 5 years focusing on youth and women among other actors. At least 600,000 jobs will be created and 100,000 start-ups and SMEs produced through incubation and 60,000 students exposed to learn as you earn model and mentored to start new businesses.</div> <p> <br /> In recent past, there have been many innovations in areas of technology, extension, ICT, education, and incubation leading to new generation of enterprises and enterprise clusters resulting in the creation of good quality and new jobs in agriculture and food systems. A key challenge in the future is how we create more and better jobs in the agriculture and food system value chain. One of the major requirements for creating more jobs is a radical change in the way youth are taught agriculture and entrepreneurship. The skills required for a modern agriculture and food system are of a higher order and need to be upgraded significantly.</p> <p> As part of the 2017 Global Learning Forum more than 250 staff in the Agriculture Global Practice from around the world are learning how Agriculture and Food Systems are going to look like in future. The group participants visited the Urban Food Hubs Program being managed by the University of the District of Columbia (UDC). The Urban Food Hubs focus on four components: food production, food preparation, food distribution, and waste and water recovery.</p> </div></div></div> Thu, 25 Jan 2018 17:01:00 +0000 Iftikhar Mostafa 7778 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Ranking the world’s megacities is a wake-up call for women’s rights https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/ranking-world-s-megacities-wake-call-women-s-rights <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><div> Cities are becoming monsters. Look at the world’s biggest megacities. 38 million people live in Tokyo! Try to take a taxi and find the house of a friend in Japan’s capital. You need luck. Six billion people will live in cities by 2045.<br /><br /><img alt="" height="428" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/26641124124_1e61d94666_z.jpg" style="float:left" title="" width="342" />Cities are the new states; today, many of the world’s 31 megacities have larger populations and economies than individual nations.<br /><br /> For many people, these big urban centers represent the land of opportunity, offering better chances of employment, increased access to education and health services, social mobility.  For many others it’s a daily struggle for survival. In all big cities, the inequality between rich and poor has become gigantic and the divide seems only to grow.<br /><br /> We conducted a poll to investigate one aspect: how do women perceive their life in the world’s megacities? We chose women because they are the real economic accelerators, re-investing 90% of their salary into their families. When a woman thrives, her immediate community thrives with her.<br /><br /> Throughout June and July, we asked 380 gender experts in the 19 countries hosting the world’s biggest megacities to identify in which they thought women fared best and worst. The findings were eye-opening. They returned a truly compelling snapshot of the wider issues faced by women: from sexual violence, to security, to access to reproductive rights, from the risks of harmful cultural practices, to the lack of access to economic opportunities.<br /><br /> London was voted the world’s most female-friendly metropolis, thanks to its provision of free healthcare and access to economic resources such as education and financial services.  Tokyo and Paris came second and third.<br /><br /> But when we look at what concerned women most, the poll offers proper food for thought. In London, for example, experts cited the gender pay gap (a recent study by the Chartered Management Institute and XpertHR found on average, women earned £12,000 less than their male counterparts, while just 26% of director-led roles are filled by women as opposed to 74% by men) as well as extortionate childcare costs, as two of the major issues facing women today.<br />  </div> </div></div></div> Fri, 03 Nov 2017 20:15:00 +0000 Monique Villa 7759 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Campaign Art: What Does Freedom for Girls Mean to You? https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/campaign-art-what-does-freedom-girls-mean-you <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <strong>People, Spaces, Deliberation bloggers present exceptional campaign art from all over the world. These examples are meant to inspire.</strong><br /><br /> October 11 has been marked as the International Day of the Girl by the United Nations since 2012. The aims are to highlight and address the needs and challenges girls face, while promoting girls' empowerment and the fulfillment of their human rights.<br /><br /> For this year’s Day of the Girl, the #FreedomForGirls campaign was launched in partnership between <a href="https://www.project-everyone.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Project Everyone</a>, <a href="https://www.unicef.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">UNICEF</a>, and the <a href="https://www.gatesfoundation.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Bill &amp; Melinda Gates Foundation</a>. This campaign sheds further light on the <a href="https://www.globalgoals.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">United Nations’ Global Goals</a>, which included a commitment to achieve gender equality and empowering all women and girls by 2030. The UN along with its agencies and programs, believe that none of the 17 goals can be realized without empowering the largest generation of adolescent girls the world has ever seen.</p> <div class="asset-wrapper asset aid-383 asset-video"> <strong > Freedom - International Day of the Girl </strong> <div class="content"> <div class="field field-name-field-asset-video-file field-type-emvideo field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><object type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="640" height="360" data="//www.youtube.com/v/3BMgV8jj9IU"> <param name="movie" value="//www.youtube.com/v/3BMgV8jj9IU" /> <param name="wmode" value="transparent" /> <param name="allowFullScreen" value="true" /> </object> </div></div></div></div> </div></div></div></div> Wed, 01 Nov 2017 18:10:00 +0000 Sari P.S Dallal 7757 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Education amidst Fragility, Conflict and Violence https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/education-amidst-fragility-conflict-and-violence <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt=" Maria Fleischmann / World Bank" height="213" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/8249943505_64b9ccc55b_z.jpg" style="float:left" title=" Maria Fleischmann / World Bank" width="320" />Access to schooling and quality learning can be undermined by various manifestations of fragility, conflict and violence (FCV). The effect of different elements of FCV on education has both immediate and long lasting impacts on children’s learning, their well-being and their future prospects.<br />  <br /> In different forms, FCV manifestations contribute to a denial of the right to education, whether from government failures, a violent ecosystem, and the treatment of displaced children and divisions within schools, attacks on schools or the language of instruction. This can include the ways in which teachers and principals treat lower castes, children with disabilities, or minority groups; the threat or real violence against girls; as well as how textbooks portray history and culture.  These issues exist globally, not just in ‘fragile states’.<br />  <br /> Over the past two decades, greater attention has focused on the impact that long-term complex humanitarian emergencies, fragile states, and contexts of protracted crises on education. What has received less attention is the aggregate impact of various forms of negative conflict and intra-personal violence.<br />  <br /> There are three entry points to consider for FCV: protracted crises; conflict as the basis of exclusion; direct and indirect forms of intra-personal violence. </p> </div></div></div> Tue, 18 Jul 2017 18:11:00 +0000 Stephen Commins 7744 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Supporting creation of institutional platform of 45 million women for social and economic empowerment in rural India: The National Rural Livelihoods Mission https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/supporting-creation-institutional-platform-45-million-women-social-and-economic-empowerment-rural <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><figure class="image" style="float:left"><img alt="" height="242" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/jasmine_farming_for_the_blog.jpg" title="Jasmine cultivation" width="400" /><figcaption> Jasmine cultivation</figcaption></figure><p> In the early morning at Dadar station in metropolitan Mumbai, a common sight is unloading of tons of jasmine and marigold flowers packed in jute sacks. Flowers come from Jawhar block located in the district of Palghar in Maharashtra. At the village the flowers are procured from each producer, weighed and packed in jute sacks. These are collected from the village bus stands and transported to Dadar in Mumbai by either bus or train. Floriculture has emerged as an alternative source of livelihood for small and marginal farmers in the region. Collective marketing has allowed small producers to aggregate and sell their flowers. Aggregation has enabled producers to realize better incomes through collective bargaining. About 3,500 women farmers have been mobilized as producer groups, and their annual turnover is expected to be around US $ 1 million in the next season.</p> <p> Similarly, in four tribal districts (Koraput, Rayagada  Gajapati and Mayurbhanj) of Orissa in the eastern part of India, 6,300 women mango producers have been organized to facilitate creation of a Producers’ Company with annual turnover of US $260,000. They planted high-quality mango trees in their land with the help of Government’s horticulture department. They were provided training on pre-harvest, post-harvest management &amp; market information and price discovery. The producer company was able to do local value addition through grading, sorting, packaging and loading through trucks. The producer company has been able to sell products to wholesale and high value channels like retail outlets and have become aggregators for large food retailers and companies. The producer company has helped the members to realize additional income of US $800 for each household. </p> <div> <div> <figure class="image"><img alt="" height="176" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/mango_value_chain_for_the_blog.jpg" title="" width="700" /><figcaption> Mango value chain: sorting, grading and packaging</figcaption></figure></div> </div> <p> </div></div></div> Fri, 16 Jun 2017 17:22:00 +0000 Parmesh Shah 7742 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Media (R)evolutions: What’s the potential of mobile payments? https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/media-revolutions-what-s-potential-mobile-payments <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><strong>New developments and curiosities from a changing global media landscape:</strong> <a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/" rel="nofollow"><strong>People, Spaces, Deliberation</strong></a> <strong>brings trends and events to your attention that illustrate that tomorrow's media environment will look very different from today's, and will have little resemblance to yesterday's.</strong> <br /><br /> There is a lot of discussion right now about mobile payments and its potential in rural and urban communities. Who uses these services and how will this impact various key markets?<br /><br /> According to the latest <a href="https://blog.globalwebindex.net/chart-of-the-day/7-in-10-mobile-payment-users-live-in-urban-environments/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Mobile Payments report</a> by the <a href="https://www.globalwebindex.net/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">GlobalWebIndex</a>, the next wave of growth in mobile payments will be in rural areas. Defined as the financial transactions performed via mobile devices, mobile payments may offer solutions to traditional methods of delivering financial services. Currently 7 in 10 mobile payment users live in urban environments.<br />   <div> <div> <a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/mobile_payments.png" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><img alt="" height="462" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/mobile_payments.png" title="By Global Web Index" width="350" /></a></div> <br /><span>Globally, there are about 2 billion adults without access to a basic bank account. Although this is a 20 percent decrease from </span><a href="https://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/globalfindex" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><span>2.5 billion adults in 2011</span></a><span>, it’s still a high number. Regardless of barriers of opening a bank account (lack of enough money, distance to the nearest financial service provider, lack of proper documentation papers, etc..), one thing is clear: traditional financial services are not meeting the needs of the low income users. Will mobile payments fill this gap? </span></div> </div></div></div> Wed, 14 Jun 2017 18:02:00 +0000 Darejani Markozashvili 7740 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Blog post of the month: Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs, and Lower Food Miles https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/blog-post-month-urban-agriculture-food-jobs-and-lower-food-miles <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <strong>Each month <a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">People, Spaces, Deliberation </a>shares the blog post that generated the most interest and discussion. For May 2017, the featured blog post is "<a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/urban-agriculture-food-jobs-and-lower-food-miles" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs, and Lower Food Miles</a>" by Vivek Prasad and Iftikhar Mostafa. </strong><br /><br /><span>Millions of urban dwellers cultivate vegetables and fruit trees in home gardens, both for their families and for sale. In Dakar, 7500 households “</span><a href="https://www.wikihow.com/Grow-Your-Own-Food" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><span>grow their own</span></a><span>” in micro-gardens. In Malawi, 700 000 urban residents practice home gardening to meet their food needs and earn extra income. Low-income city </span><a href="https://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i3002e/i3002e.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><span>gardeners in Zambia make US$230</span></a><span> a year from sales. In cities like Bamako, Accra and Kumasi, depending on crop and season, between 60 and 100 per cent of leafy vegetables consumed are produced within the respective cities with </span><a href="https://www.cityfarmer.org/WEBLabour.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><span>employment figures ranging from 1,000 to 15,000 jobs</span></a>.<span> <span>Even megacities such as Shanghai, with about 15% population growth per year, one of the fastest growing cities on the planet, maintains its </span></span><a href="https://www.theecologist.org/green_green_living/2623495/making_cities_sustainable_with_urban_agriculture.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><span>urban farming as an important part of its economic system</span></a><span>.</span></p> <span> </span> <div style="margin:0px; padding:0px; border:0px currentColor; vertical-align:baseline"> <a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/1a_0.jpg" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><img alt="" height="270" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/1a_0.jpg" style="padding:2px; border:1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); vertical-align:bottom; max-width:none" title="Photo from Flickr by Jesse Warren " width="800" /></a></div> <p> <span>Farm plots amidst apartment blocks in Chaozhou, China. </span><br /><br /><a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/1c.jpg" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><img alt="" height="301" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/1c.jpg" style="padding:2px; border:1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); vertical-align:bottom; max-width:none; float:right" title="Photo by Vivek Prasad" width="400" /></a>Around 15 percent of the world’s food is now grown in urban areas. According to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), urban farms already supply <a href="https://foodtank.com/news/2015/07/urban-farms-and-gardens-are-feeding-cities-around-the-world/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">food to about 700 million residents of cities</a>, representing about a quarter of the world’s urban population.    <br /><br /> Most cities in developing countries are facing challenges to create formal job opportunities. Urban agriculture can play an important role not only in enhancing food security but also in contributing to the eco-system - improved nutrition, poverty alleviation, local economic development and job creation as well as productive reuse of urban wastes.<br /><br /> Cuba has a system of urban organic farms called <a href="https://www.fao.org/ag/agp/greenercities/en/GGCLAC/havana.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Organopónicos</a>, which provides a fresh supply of organic food to the community, neighborhood improvement, beautification of urban areas, as well as employment opportunities. <a href="https://www.greeneconomycoalition.org/know-how/urban-farms-cuba" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Cuba has more than 7,000 organopónicos, with some 200 gardens in Havana</a> alone, covering more than 35,000 hectares of land, which supply its citizens with 90% of their fruit and vegetables. In Havana, <a href="https://www.cityfarmer.org/WEBLabour.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">117,000 jobs in Havana and income for 150,000 low income families</a> were directly provided by urban and peri-urban agriculture.</p> </div></div></div> Tue, 30 May 2017 18:00:00 +0000 Vivek Prasad 7729 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Campaign Art: #GirlsCount https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/campaign-art-girlscount <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <strong><span>People, Spaces, Deliberation bloggers present exceptional campaign art from all over the world. These examples are meant to inspire.</span></strong></p> <p> Getting access to quality education is one of the most pressing challenges. Around <a href="https://datatopics.worldbank.org/sdgatlas/SDG-04-quality-education.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">61 million primary school-age children remained out of school in 2014</a>, even though globally the enrollment in primary education in developing countries reached 91 percent.<br />  </p> <div> <img alt="" height="307" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/sdg_atlas.png" title="" width="700" /></div> <p> <br /> Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics; WDI (<a href="https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRE.ENRR?view=map" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">SE.PRE.ENRR</a>, <a href="https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.ENRR?view=map" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">SE.PRM.ENRR</a>, <a href="https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.SEC.ENRR?view=map" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">SE.SEC.ENRR</a>, <a href="https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.TER.ENRR?view=map" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">SE.TER.ENRR</a>).<br /><br /> Although a global issue, it affects some groups more disproportionally than others. In many countries around the world girls are more likely to be denied education than boys. In order to raise awareness about the gender inequality and to urge global leaders to prioritize girls’ education, <a href="https://www.one.org/us/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">The One Campaign</a> has launched a digital campaign #<a href="https://girlscount.one.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">GirlsCount</a>.</p> </div></div></div> Wed, 24 May 2017 18:15:00 +0000 Darejani Markozashvili 7726 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere What our government clients think in fragile countries: A perspective from the Country Surveys https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/what-our-government-clients-think-fragile-countries-perspective-country-surveys <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even">The World Bank Spring Meetings have just come to a close with much emphasis placed on the fragile states.  Sessions at the meetings focused on a range of relevant topics including “Financing for Peace” and “Supporting Private Enterprise in Conflict Affected Situations.”  The challenge that the Bank faces in the fragile states is considerable, with donor expectations high for the institution post IDA 18 replenishment.<br /><br /><img alt="" height="221" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/felzer_1.jpg" style="float:left" title="" width="170" /><strong><img alt="" height="224" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/felzer_3.png" style="float:left" title="" width="220" /></strong>The World Bank’s Country Survey Program has been surveying key influencers, in nearly all of its client countries systematically, since 2012, in order to assess and track their views over time. These respondents come from a range of stakeholder groups including government, media, private sector, civil society and academia.  The views of respondents from government (i.e., the offices of presidents/prime ministers/ministers/parliamentarians, employees of ministries, including PMUs, and other governmental bodies) are the focus of this blog (and how their views compare to those outside of government), because this group is one that Bank Group interacts with the most in ‘client’ mode.  In a sense, the Country Surveys are really ‘client satisfaction’ surveys when it comes to the thousands of government respondents who participate.<br /><br /><br /> How do these government ‘clients’ think the Bank Group is faring in fragile and conflict states?  How do they perceive our engagement on the ground?  How can the Bank do better? Where is the perceived Bank Group niche, according to those who own the projects and programs that the Bank supports?</div></div></div> Thu, 11 May 2017 18:14:00 +0000 Sharon Felzer 7717 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere How social media data can improve people’s lives - if used responsibly https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/how-social-media-data-can-improve-people-s-lives-if-used-responsibly <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <a href="https://cdn.theconversation.com/files/165133/width754/image-20170412-25862-wxzwfm.png" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"><img alt="Image 20170412 25862 wxzwfm" height="250" src="https://cdn.theconversation.com/files/165133/width754/image-20170412-25862-wxzwfm.png" title="A woman participates in a community mapping exercise in Malawi’s Chikwawa and Nsanje districts. emirhartato/flickr, CC BY-SA" width="400" /></a>In January 2015, heavy rains triggered unprecedented floods in Malawi. Over the next five weeks, the floods displaced more than <a href="https://www.unicef.org/malawi/MLW_floodresponse_humanitariansitrep13.pdf" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">230,000 people</a> and damaged <a href="https://www.wfp.org/news/news-release/japan-helps-feed-flood-affected-families-and-school-children-malawi" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">over 64,000 hectares of land</a>.</p> <p> Almost half the country was labelled a <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/jan/14/malawi-flooding-torrential-rain-mozambique" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">“disaster zone”</a> by Malawi’s government. And as the humanitarian crisis unfolded, relief agencies, such as <a href="https://www.ifrc.org/ar/news-and-media/news-stories/africa/malawi/malawi-red-cross-appeals-for-continued-flood-operation-support/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">the Red Cross</a> were faced with the daunting task of allocating aid and resources to places that were virtually unrecorded by the country’s mapping data, and thus rendered almost invisible.</p> <p> Humanitarian workers <a href="https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2015/02/devastation-disease-deadly-malawi-floods-150225070745817.html" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">struggled to navigate in many of the most affected areas</a>, and one result was that aid did not necessarily reach those most in need.</p> <p> To prevent similar knowledge gaps in the future, researchers, volunteers and humanitarian workers in Malawi and elsewhere, have turned to an unlikely partner: Facebook.</p> <p> In 2016, as part of its “Missing Maps” project, the Red Cross accessed Facebook’s rich population density data to find and map people who were critically vulnerable to natural disasters and health emergencies, but remained unrecorded in existing maps.</p> </div></div></div> Tue, 09 May 2017 14:35:00 +0000 Stefaan Verhulst 7714 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs, and Lower Food Miles https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/urban-agriculture-food-jobs-and-lower-food-miles <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <span>Millions of urban dwellers cultivate vegetables and fruit trees in home gardens, both for their families and for sale. In Dakar, 7500 households “</span><a href="https://www.wikihow.com/Grow-Your-Own-Food" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><span>grow their own</span></a><span>” in micro-gardens. In Malawi, 700 000 urban residents practice home gardening to meet their food needs and earn extra income. Low-income city </span><a href="https://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i3002e/i3002e.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><span>gardeners in Zambia make US$230</span></a><span> a year from sales. In cities like Bamako, Accra and Kumasi, depending on crop and season, between 60 and 100 per cent of leafy vegetables consumed are produced within the respective cities with </span><a href="https://www.cityfarmer.org/WEBLabour.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><span>employment figures ranging from 1,000 to 15,000 jobs</span></a>.<span> <span>Even megacities such as Shanghai, with about 15% population growth per year, one of the fastest growing cities on the planet, maintains its </span></span><a href="https://www.theecologist.org/green_green_living/2623495/making_cities_sustainable_with_urban_agriculture.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><span>urban farming as an important part of its economic system</span></a><span>.</span></p>   <div> <a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/1a_0.jpg" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><img alt="" height="270" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/1a_0.jpg" title="Photo from Flickr by Jesse Warren " width="800" /></a></div> <p> <span>Farm plots amidst apartment blocks in Chaozhou, China. </span><br /><br /><a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/1c.jpg" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><img alt="" height="301" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/1c.jpg" style="float:right" title="Photo by Vivek Prasad" width="400" /></a>Around 15 percent of the world’s food is now grown in urban areas. According to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), urban farms already supply <a href="https://foodtank.com/news/2015/07/urban-farms-and-gardens-are-feeding-cities-around-the-world/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">food to about 700 million residents of cities</a>, representing about a quarter of the world’s urban population.    <br /><br /> Most cities in developing countries are facing challenges to create formal job opportunities. Urban agriculture can play an important role not only in enhancing food security but also in contributing to the eco-system - improved nutrition, poverty alleviation, local economic development and job creation as well as productive reuse of urban wastes.<br /><br /> Cuba has a system of urban organic farms called <a href="https://www.fao.org/ag/agp/greenercities/en/GGCLAC/havana.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Organopónicos</a>, which provides a fresh supply of organic food to the community, neighborhood improvement, beautification of urban areas, as well as employment opportunities. <a href="https://www.greeneconomycoalition.org/know-how/urban-farms-cuba" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Cuba has more than 7,000 organopónicos, with some 200 gardens in Havana</a> alone, covering more than 35,000 hectares of land, which supply its citizens with 90% of their fruit and vegetables. In Havana, <a href="https://www.cityfarmer.org/WEBLabour.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">117,000 jobs in Havana and income for 150,000 low income families</a> were directly provided by urban and peri-urban agriculture.</p> </div></div></div> Tue, 02 May 2017 14:15:00 +0000 Vivek Prasad 7707 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Campaign Art: Block by block for inclusive public spaces https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/campaign-art-block-block-inclusive-public-spaces <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><strong>People, Spaces, Deliberation bloggers present exceptional campaign art from all over the world. These examples are meant to inspire.</strong> <p> Public spaces have been a place of social interaction from the very early beginnings of the human civilization. Taksim Square in Istanbul, Tahrir Square in Cairo, Maidan Square in Kiev, Tiananmen Square in Beijing, and Plaza de Mayo in Buenos Aires are among just a few common places around the world that have witnessed the most iconic events of the recent history.</p> <p> If public spaces are so important to everyday life of citizens, whose responsibility is it to create and maintain them? Should citizens have a say in how they are designed?</p> <p> <a href="https://unhabitat.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">UN-Habitat</a>, a United Nations programme working towards a better urban future, partnered up with <a href="https://mojang.com/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Mojang</a>, a Swedish video game developer, and Microsoft to involve people— especially youth, women and slum dwellers— in urban design by using the videogame <a href="https://minecraft.net/en-us/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Minecraft</a>. The innovative partnership, known as <a href="https://blockbyblock.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Block by Block</a>, was set up in 2012 to support the UN-Habitat’s work with public spaces. Take a look at the video below to learn more about this innovative approach.</p> <div class="asset-wrapper asset aid-369 asset-video"> <strong > Block by Block </strong> <div class="content"> <div class="field field-name-field-asset-video-file field-type-emvideo field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><object type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="640" height="360" data="//www.youtube.com/v/P4MjQy0xLhM"> <param name="movie" value="//www.youtube.com/v/P4MjQy0xLhM" /> <param name="wmode" value="transparent" /> <param name="allowFullScreen" value="true" /> </object> </div></div></div></div> </div></div></div></div> Wed, 26 Apr 2017 15:41:00 +0000 Darejani Markozashvili 7702 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Blog post of the month: Strengthening governance is top-of-mind for opinion leaders in developing countries https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/blog-post-month-strengthening-governance-top-mind-opinion-leaders-developing-countries <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><h4> Each month <a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">People, Spaces, Deliberation </a>shares the blog post that generated the most interest and discussion. For April 2017, the featured blog post is "Strengthening governance is top-of-mind for opinion leaders in developing countries" by Jing Guo.</h4> Capable, efficient, and accountable government institutions are essential for a country’s sustainable development. The most recent polls of opinion leaders in World Bank client countries confirmed that addressing governance is now at the top of countries’ development priorities.  <br />  <br /> The World Bank Group annually surveys nearly 10,000 influencers in 40+ countries across the globe to assess their views on development issues, including opinions about public sector governance and reform.  In the past five years, the survey reached more than 35,000 opinion leaders working in government, parliament, private sector, civil society, media, and academia in more than 120 developing countries.<br />  <br /> Data from the most recent 2016 survey indicate that public sector governance/reform (i.e., government effectiveness, public financial management, public expenditure, and fiscal system reform) is regarded as the most important development priority across 45 countries by a plurality of opinion leaders (34%), surpassing education (30%) and job creation (22%). (1)<br />  <br /> The chart below shows that concerns over governance have grown substantially among opinion leaders since 2012.<div class="asset-wrapper asset aid-366 asset-tableau"> <strong > Chart 1 </strong> <div class="content"> <div class="field field-name-field-asset-video-file field-type-emvideo field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><iframe align="middle" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen" allowtransparency="true" frameborder="0" id="datawrapper-chart-v9HzB" mozallowfullscreen="mozallowfullscreen" msallowfullscreen="msallowfullscreen" oallowfullscreen="oallowfullscreen" width="100%" height="100%" scrolling="no" src="//datawrapper.dwcdn.net/v9HzB/1/" webkitallowfullscreen="webkitallowfullscreen"></iframe><script type="text/javascript">if("undefined"==typeof window.datawrapper)window.datawrapper={};window.datawrapper["v9HzB"]={},window.datawrapper["v9HzB"].embedDeltas={"100":675,"200":486,"300":443,"400":400,"500":400,"600":374,"700":357,"800":357,"900":357,"1000":357},window.datawrapper["v9HzB"].iframe=document.getElementById("datawrapper-chart-v9HzB"),window.datawrapper["v9HzB"].iframe.style.height=window.datawrapper["v9HzB"].embedDeltas[Math.min(1e3,Math.max(100*Math.floor(window.datawrapper["v9HzB"].iframe.offsetWidth/100),100))]+"px",window.addEventListener("message",function(a){if("undefined"!=typeof a.data["datawrapper-height"])for(var b in a.data["datawrapper-height"])if("v9HzB"==b)window.datawrapper["v9HzB"].iframe.style.height=a.data["datawrapper-height"][b]+"px"});</script><br /> &nbsp;</div></div></div> Tue, 25 Apr 2017 19:18:00 +0000 Jing Guo 7701 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Immigration and displacement: The importance of social networks for those leaving home https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/immigration-and-displacement-importance-social-networks-those-leaving-home <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <strong>This is the third post in a series of six in which </strong><a href="https://www.worldbank.org/en/about/people/michael-woolcock" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><strong><em>Michael Woolcock</em></strong></a><strong>, Lead Social Development Specialist at the World Bank and lecturer in public policy at the Harvard Kennedy School, discusses critical ideas within the field of </strong><a href="https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/socialdevelopment" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><strong><em>Social Development</em></strong></a><strong>.</strong><br /><br /> International migration trends have been the subject of fierce debate globally, and when you look at the data it’s no surprise why this is the case.  In 2015, the number of international migrants was the highest ever recorded, reaching 244 million (from 232 million in 2013), according to the <a href="https://gmdac.iom.int/global-migration-trends-factsheet" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">International Organization for Migration</a>.  Moreover, the number of people fleeing conflict has also risen. <a href="https://www.unhcr.org/en-us/figures-at-a-glance.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">UNHCR</a>, the UN’s Refugee Agency, estimates that 65.3 million people have been forcibly displaced from their homes, 21.3 million of which are now refugees, and around 10 million people are stateless.<br /><br /> These massive flows of people, however, demonstrate the incredible capacity of social networks to help individuals navigate and deal with new experiences. For most migrants the choice to move is an existential one in which they <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/migration/migration_trends_rev2.shtml" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">weigh</a> the risk it takes to make the journey with the potential opportunities it may bring.  In doing so they consider where and how people they know have traveled before them, and which <a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/ubuntu-how-social-networks-help-explain-theories-change" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">relationships they can tap into for support</a>. Individuals living in diasporas also respond by sharing <a href="https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/10/apps-refugee-crisis-coding/413377/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">critical knowledge and tools</a>, sending <a href="https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/migrationremittancesdiasporaissues/overview" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">remittances</a>, and in bridging the cultures between the newly arrived and their new communities.</p> <p> As Michael Woolcock explains, the risk involved with migrating is directly affected by the social networks that individuals can construct to cope with the hazards and vulnerability that they encounter- both in the process of moving but also in settling and figuring out how things are done in the new locale.<br />  </p> <div class="asset-wrapper asset aid-362 asset-video"> <strong > Immigration and displacement: The importance of social networks for those leaving home </strong> <div class="content"> <div class="field field-name-field-asset-video-file field-type-emvideo field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><object type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="640" height="360" data="//www.youtube.com/v/49gLKkTKDwI"> <param name="movie" value="//www.youtube.com/v/49gLKkTKDwI" /> <param name="wmode" value="transparent" /> <param name="allowFullScreen" value="true" /> </object> </div></div></div></div> </div> <p> </div></div></div> Tue, 18 Apr 2017 17:08:00 +0000 Roxanne Bauer 7694 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Ubuntu: How social networks help explain theories of change https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/ubuntu-how-social-networks-help-explain-theories-change <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><h4> This is the second post in a series of six in which <a href="https://www.worldbank.org/en/about/people/michael-woolcock" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Michael Woolcock</a>, Lead Social Development Specialist at the World Bank and lecturer in public policy at the Harvard Kennedy School, discusses critical ideas within the field of <a href="https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/socialdevelopment" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Social Development</a>.</h4> There is a Nguni-Bantu phrase, “I am because we are” which arises from the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubuntu_(philosophy)" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Ubuntu philosophy</a> of community. Liberian peace activist <a href="https://www.ted.com/talks/leymah_gbowee_unlock_the_intelligence_passion_greatness_of_girls" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Leymah Gbowee</a> translated it in her TED Talk as “I am what I am because of who we all are.” At its most basic understanding, Ubuntu means “human kindness toward others,” but its meaning is much greater, expressing ideas of connection and community. It is a concept known to cultures around the world. The Maori of New Zealand say “We all in the same boat”, and the North American Sioux tribe believes that, “With all things and in all things, we are relatives.” Globally, cultures around the world know and use the phrase “it takes a village to raise a child”. <br /><br /> Modern philosophers have taken these axioms and developed social science research to explore them. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_capital" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Social capital</a> refers to the interpersonal interactions we all participate in to create economic and cultural resources. When social capital is functioning well, social relations are marked by reciprocity, trust and cooperation and individuals can produce goods and services not just for themselves, but for the common good.  Relatedly, <a href="https://wikiprogress.org/articles/poverty-development/social-cohesion/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">social cohesion</a> describes the degree to which a society works toward the wellbeing of all its members, supports inclusive practices, and allows individuals to work for upward mobility.<br /><br /> These theories are essential to international development because, as <a href="https://www.worldbank.org/en/about/people/michael-woolcock" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Michael Woolcock</a> points out, “Development changes who people interact with, and the terms with which people interact.”  Whether you think of these ideas as Ubuntu or social capital, they encompass the way in which people deal with power structures, like the state, and with other people who are not like them. <br />   <div> <div class="asset-wrapper asset aid-358 asset-video"> <strong > Michael Woolcock </strong> <div class="content"> <div class="field field-name-field-asset-video-file field-type-emvideo field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><object type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="640" height="360" data="//www.youtube.com/v/MPHpbAqPxQ4"> <param name="movie" value="//www.youtube.com/v/MPHpbAqPxQ4" /> <param name="wmode" value="transparent" /> <param name="allowFullScreen" value="true" /> </object> </div></div></div></div> </div><br />  </div> </div></div></div> Wed, 05 Apr 2017 19:05:00 +0000 Roxanne Bauer 7683 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere