empowerment https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/taxonomy/term/3866/all en Should we focus more on women’s political empowerment when democracy goes off the rails? Tom Carothers thinks so. https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/should-we-focus-more-women-s-political-empowerment-when-democracy-goes-rails-tom-carothers-thinks-so <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><h4> <img alt="" height="140" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/tom-carothers-150x150.jpg" style="float:right" title="" width="140" />My inbox has been buzzing with praise for a new paper on this issue by the Carnegie Endowment’s democracy guru, <a href="https://carnegieendowment.org/experts/9" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Thomas Carothers</a>. Since he’s one of my favourite guest posters (no editing ever required), I asked him to summarize its findings.</h4> <p> <img alt="" height="212" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/9128661882_10a55418e7_z.jpg" style="float:left" title=" Arne Hoel / World Bank" width="320" />Last year the gender, women, and democracy team at the National Democratic Institute approached me with a question. NDI, like many groups engaged in supporting democracy internationally, was responding to the increasingly fraught landscape of global democracy by attempting to think more strategically and move fully away from any lingering tendency to pursue a standard democracy “menu” across extremely diverse political contexts. NDI’s gender team wanted to insert women’s political empowerment programming into the new strategic discussion. Would I help them think it through? The team deflected my protests that I lack  expertise on women’s empowerment, telling me they would help me get up to speed.  They also politely pointed out that as someone who presents himself as a general expert on democratic change, perhaps it was time for me to correct my lack of knowledge about the gender domain. I signed on.</p> <div> <p> After some months of delving into the literature on women’s political empowerment and interviewing numerous aid practitioners and women’s activists working on the front lines, some interesting findings came into focus.  I present them in my new paper, “<a href="https://carnegieendowment.org/2016/09/14/democracy-support-strategies-leading-with-women-s-political-empowerment-pub-64534" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Democracy Support Strategies: Leading with Women’s Political Empowerment</a>.”</p> </div> <p> At first glance, programs seeking to foster greater women’s political empowerment did seem to follow a standard menu –everywhere I looked I saw training for women candidates in local and national elections, efforts to strengthen the role of women within political parties, advocacy in favor of gender quotas in legislatures, and support for women’s parliamentary caucuses. Yet when I probed how such programming unfolds across different transitional contexts, important variations emerged. </p> </div></div></div> Tue, 08 Nov 2016 19:54:00 +0000 Duncan Green 7557 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Blog post of the month: A sidekick for development https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/blog-post-month-sidekick-development <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><div style="margin:0px; padding:0px; border:0px currentColor; vertical-align:baseline"> <div style="margin:0px; padding:0px; border:0px currentColor; vertical-align:baseline"> <h4> <img alt="" height="218" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/sidekick.jpg" style="padding:2px; border:1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); vertical-align:bottom; max-width:none; float:right" title="" width="280" />Each month People, Spaces, Deliberation shares the blog post that generated the most interest and discussion.<br /> For October 2016, the featured blog post is "<a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/sidekick-development" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">A Sidekick for Development</a>" by Maya Brahmam.</h4> <div style="margin:0px; padding:0px; border:0px currentColor; vertical-align:baseline"> October 17 was End Poverty Day – and we at the World Bank in Washington had a small celebration and a lively discussion around the new Poverty report: <a href="https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/25078/9781464809583.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><strong>Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2016: Taking on Inequality</strong></a>. Topics ranged from 2 billion people living in countries affected by conflict to the work on social inclusion – which included a two-part definition of social inclusion: “The process of improving the terms for individuals and groups to take part in society” and “The process of improving the ability, opportunity, and dignity of people, disadvantaged on the basis of their identity, to take part in society.”</div></div></div> Tue, 01 Nov 2016 18:16:00 +0000 Maya Brahmam 7551 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere A Sidekick for Development https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/sidekick-development <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" height="218" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/sidekick.jpg" style="float:right" title="" width="280" />October 17 was End Poverty Day – and we at the World Bank in Washington had a small celebration and a lively discussion around the new Poverty report: <a href="https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/25078/9781464809583.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><strong>Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2016: Taking on Inequality</strong></a>. Topics ranged from 2 billion people living in countries affected by conflict to the work on social inclusion – which included a two-part definition of social inclusion: “The process of improving the terms for individuals and groups to take part in society” and “The process of improving the ability, opportunity, and dignity of people, disadvantaged on the basis of their identity, to take part in society.”<br />  <br /> Then I happened to notice a tweet from <a href="https://www.cgdev.org/expert/owen-barder" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Owen Barder</a> on <a href="https://sidekickmanifesto.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">the Sidekick Manifesto</a> (with a cool pop art look) with the apt tagline: In the story of poverty’s end, we can only be sidekicks. I particularly liked the statement: “The poor are not powerless or waiting to be saved.”<br />  <br /> It seemed to be a good reminder that economic development is a complex and costly process, which requires political buy-in from a broad range of actors, including the local community. Progress is built over time, and there are no quick wins. In the larger scheme of things, the poor are the main actors, we’re just the sidekicks for development.<br /></div></div></div> Tue, 18 Oct 2016 14:51:00 +0000 Maya Brahmam 7539 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere If you see it, you can be it https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/if-you-see-it-you-can-be-it <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><h4> Rosie Parkyn explores the opportunities and challenges online media presents in addressing the gender equality gap.</h4> <p>  <img alt="School girls gathering around a computer " height="158" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/school_girls_gathering_around_a_computer.jpg" style="float:left" title="" width="280" />‘<em>If you see it, you can be it’</em> could have been the unofficial slogan of the International Development Cooperation meeting on<strong> </strong>Gender and Media, where I was invited to talk about the opportunities created by the internet and online media to counter gender stereotyping, or the assignment of particular characteristics and roles according to sex. This is a theme touched on by our <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/mediaaction/publications-and-resources/policy/briefings/policy-girls-media" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Policy Briefing, Making Waves: Media’s Potential for Girls in the Global South</a>.<br /><br /> Much has been said about the need to achieve better visibility for girls and women in the media if gender equality is to be realised. This year’s <a href="https://cdn.agilitycms.com/who-makes-the-news/Imported/reports_2015/highlights/highlights_en.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Global Media Monitoring Project</a> reported that women make up only 24% of people heard, read about or seen in news reporting. That coverage is often characterised by gender bias and extensive stereotyping.<br /><br /> So could the onward expansion of digital spaces fast track the process of ensuring girls and women are seen in a diversity of roles? The short answer is yes of course, it has transformative potential. But there are significant caveats.</p> </div></div></div> Tue, 22 Dec 2015 17:28:00 +0000 Rosie Parkyn 7257 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Humanitarian broadcasting in emergencies https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/humanitarian-broadcasting-emergencies <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="A recording of BBC Media Action’s ‘Milijuli Nepali’ (Together Nepal)" height="210" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/bbcma-nepal.jpg" style="float:left" title="" width="280" />It is several days after the earthquake in Nepal. A small group of Nepali women sit on the side of the road in a village in Dhading district, 26 kilometres from Kathmandu. In this village, many people lost their homes and several died in the earthquake.<br /><br /> The women are listening attentively to a radio programme, <em>Milijuli Nepali </em>meaning ‘Together Nepal’. After it finishes, one of the women starts asking the others questions<em>: What did they think to the programme? Did they learn anything? What else would they like to hear to help them cope in the aftermath of the earthquake? </em>The women start discussing some of the issues raised around shelter and hygiene, they like the creative ideas suggestions, particularly as they comes from a source they like and trust - the BBC.  They give the researcher their ideas for future programmes and she writes them down.</p> <div class="asset-wrapper asset aid-214 asset-video"> <strong > BBC Media Action’s ‘Milijuli Nepali’ (Together Nepal) </strong> <div class="content"> <div class="field field-name-field-asset-video-file field-type-emvideo field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><iframe width="854" height="480" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/3lFGvrka-CE?wmode=transparent&wmode=opaque" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-field-asset-video-desc field-type-text-long field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"></div></div></div></div> </div><br /></div></div></div> Mon, 07 Dec 2015 18:38:00 +0000 Theo Hannides 7237 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere How can research help promote empowerment and accountability? https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/how-can-research-help-promote-empowerment-and-accountability <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" height="186" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/5094181883_76933b57f6_o.jpg" style="float:left" title="" width="280" />In the development business, DFID is a research juggernaut (180 dedicated staff, £345m annual budget, according to the <a href="https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&amp;rct=j&amp;q=&amp;esrc=s&amp;source=web&amp;cd=2&amp;cad=rja&amp;uact=8&amp;ved=0CCcQFjAB&amp;url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jobs.ac.uk%2Fjob%2FAKO286%2Fchief-scientific-adviser-and-director-research-and-evidence%2F&amp;ei=y9buVKfGNI7PaITMgfAF&amp;usg=AFQjCNEQ_aG2cnNhAmcqj" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">ad for a new boss for its Research and Evidence Division</a>). So it’s good news that they are consulting researchers, NGOs, etc. tomorrow on their next round of funding for research on empowerment and accountability (E&amp;A). Unfortunately, I can’t make it, but I had an interesting exchange with Oxfam’s <a href="https://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/our-people/programme-policy/emily-brown" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Emily Brown</a>, who will be there, on some of the ideas we think they should be looking at. Here’s a sample:</p> <p> <strong>What do we need to know?</strong></p> <p> On E&amp;A, we really need to nail down the thorny topic of measurement – how do you measure say, women’s empowerment, in a manner that satisfies the ‘gold standard’ demands of the results/value for money people? And just to complicate matters, shouldn’t a true measure of empowerment be determined by the people concerned in each given context, rather than outside funders? We’ve made some progress on such ‘<a href="https://oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/how-do-you-measure-the-difficult-stuff-empowerment-resilience-and-whether-any-change-is-attributable-to-your-role/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">hard to measure benefits</a>’, but there’s still a long way to go.</p> </div></div></div> Tue, 03 Mar 2015 20:49:00 +0000 Duncan Green 6980 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere People Power: What Do We Know About Empowered Citizens and Development? https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/people-power-what-do-we-know-about-empowered-citizens-and-development <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" height="187" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/12592678255_5c5bf7abcc_o.jpg" style="float:left" title="" width="280" />This is a short piece written for UNDP, which is organizing my <a href="https://kapuscinskilectures.eu/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Kapuscinski lecture</a> in Malta on Wednesday (4pm GMT, webcast live)</p> <p> Power is intangible, but crucial; a subtle and pervasive force field connecting individuals, communities and nations in a constant process of negotiation, contestation and change. Development is, at its heart, about the redistribution and accumulation of power by citizens.</p> <p> Much of the standard work on empowerment focuses on institutions and the world of formal power – can people vote, express dissent, organise, find decent jobs, get access to information and justice?</p> <p> These are all crucial questions, but there is an earlier stage; power ‘within’. The very first step of empowerment takes place in the hearts and minds of the individuals who ask: ‘Do I have rights? Am I a fit person to express a view? Why should anyone listen to me? Am I willing and able to speak up, and what will happen if I do?’</p> <p> Asking, (and answering) such questions is the first step in exercising citizenship, the process by which men and women engage with each other, and with decision-makers; coming together to seek improvements in their lives. Such engagement can be peaceful (the daily exercise of the social contract between citizen and state), but it may also involve disagreement and conflict, particularly when power must be surrendered by the powerful, to empower those ‘beneath’ them.</p> </div></div></div> Wed, 17 Dec 2014 19:27:00 +0000 Duncan Green 6910 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere What’s the Best Way to Measure Empowerment? https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/what-s-best-way-measure-empowerment <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" height="158" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/8054515764_2ce9afc2e7_o.jpg" style="float:left" width="280" />Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning (MEL) used to send me into a coma, but I have to admit, I’m starting to get sucked in. After all, who doesn’t want to know more about the impact of what we do all day?</p> <p> So I picked up the latest issue of Oxfam’s <a href="https://www.genderanddevelopment.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Gender and Development Journal</a> (GAD), on MEL in gender rights work, with a shameful degree of interest.</p> <p> Two pieces stood out. The first, a <a href="https://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/still-learning-a-critical-reflection-on-three-years-of-measuring-womens-empower-322261" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">reflection on Oxfam’s attempts to measure women’s empowerment</a>, had some headline findings that ‘women participants in the project were more likely to have the opportunity and feel able to influence affairs in their community. In contrast, none of the reviews found clear evidence of women’s increased involvement in key aspects of household decision-making.’ So changing what goes on within the household is the toughest nut to crack? Sounds about right.</p> <p> But (with apologies to Oxfam colleagues), I was even more interested in an article by Jane Carter and 9 (yes, nine) co-authors, looking at <a href="https://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/learning-about-womens-empowerment-in-the-context-of-development-projects-do-the-322278" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">3 Swiss-funded women’s empowerment projects</a> (Nepal, Bangladesh and Kosovo). They explored the tensions between the kinds of MEL preferred by donors (broadly, generating lots of numbers) and alternative ways to measure what has been going on.</p> </div></div></div> Wed, 23 Jul 2014 18:02:00 +0000 Duncan Green 6766 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Understanding the Nature of Power: The Force Field that Shapes Development https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/understanding-nature-power-force-field-shapes-development <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <em><img alt="" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/4417086779_8499967d8c_o_0.jpg" style="float:left; height:187px; margin-left:4px; margin-right:4px; width:280px" />I wrote this post for ODI’s <a href="https://www.developmentprogress.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Development Progress</a> blog. It went up last week, closing <a href="https://www.developmentprogress.org/political-voice" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">a series of posts on the theme of Political Voice</a>.</em></p> <p> Women’s empowerment is one of the greatest areas of progress in the last century, so what better theme for a post on ‘voice’ than gender rights?</p> <p> Globally, the gradual empowerment of women is one of the standout features of the past century. The transformation in terms of access to justice and education, to literacy, sexual and reproductive rights and political representation is striking.</p> <p> That progress has been driven by a combination of factors: the spread of effective states that are able to turn ‘rights thinking’ into actual practice, and broader normative shifts; new technologies that have freed up women’s time and enabled them to control their own fertility; the vast expansion of primary education – particularly for girls – and improved health facilities.</p> <p> Politics and power have been central to many, if not all, of these advances. At a global political level, the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (<a href="https://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">CEDAW</a>) appears to be one of those pieces of international law that exerts genuine traction at a national level, as it is ratified and codified in domestic legislation.</p> </div></div></div> Tue, 29 Apr 2014 16:15:00 +0000 Duncan Green 6684 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Can States Empower Poor People? Your Thoughts Please https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/can-states-empower-poor-people-your-thoughts-please <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/Johanna/ID-100107209.jpg" style="float:left; height:210px; width:280px" />I’m currently writing a paper on how governments can promote the empowerment of poor people. Nice and specific then. It’s ambitious/brave/bonkers depending on your point of view, and I would love some help from readers.</p> <p> First things first. This is about governments and state action. So not aid agencies, multilaterals or (blessed relief) NGOs, except as bit players. And not state-as-problem: here I’m looking at where state action has achieved positive impacts. The idea is to collect examples of success and failure in state action, as well as build some kind of overall narrative about what works, when and why.</p> <p> Here’s where I’m currently at:</p> <p> Empowerment happens when individuals and organised groups are able to imagine their world differently and to realise that vision by changing the relations of power that have been keeping them in poverty.</p> <p> The current literature suggests a neat fit with a ‘three powers’ model first proposed by our own <a href="https://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/questioning-empowerment-working-with-women-in-honduras-121185" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Jo Rowlands</a> (I think). According to this reading, power for excluded groups and individuals can be disaggregated into three basic forms:</p> </div></div></div> Wed, 26 Jun 2013 17:47:00 +0000 Duncan Green 6384 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Campaign Art: One Woman https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/campaign-art-one-woman <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><P><A href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/" target=_blank>People, Spaces, Deliberation </A>bloggers present exceptional campaign art from all over the world. These examples are meant to insprire.</P> <P><IFRAME height=315 src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Dnq2QeCvwpw" frameBorder=0 width=500 allowfullscreen=""></IFRAME></P> <P>&nbsp;</div></div></div> Wed, 13 Mar 2013 15:18:55 +0000 Kalliope Kokolis 6267 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere #3 from 2012: The Stubborn Problem of The "Village Elite" https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/stubborn-problem-village-elite <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><P><STRONG><EM><IMG height=210 alt="" hspace=0 src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/4774228830_4c8586c74c.jpeg" width=280 align=left border=0>Our Top Ten Blog Posts by Readership in 2012<BR></EM></STRONG></P> <P><EM>Originally published on August 28, 2012</EM></P> <P>Donor agency X has had a long history of working in Country A. Since the 1970s, the donor agency adapted its projects to be more <A href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Participatory_development" target=_blank>participatory</A> and has never looked back. Before starting a new project in the country, a project officer from the donor agency researched into international best practices, organized consultations in the country, and put together an action plan with the indicators to measure results.&nbsp; The project is now ready to be launched.</P> <P>The donor agency works through a national NGO to organize the first community meeting in village B to start the project. The village is selected because it is close enough to the capital city but far away enough to be considered rural.&nbsp; (It turns out that this village is often selected for pilot projects.) The community is invited to a meeting in one of the village’s schools.&nbsp; On the day of the meeting, the room is filled with some familiar faces. The party leader, a local landowner, the school head teacher and even the factory boss are in attendance. The room looks fairly full, the discussion is active for the most part, and promises are made by all to keep the momentum going for the 3-year span of the project.</div></div></div> Tue, 08 Jan 2013 14:30:22 +0000 Darshana Patel 6079 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Campaign Art: I'll Take It From Here https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/campaign-art-ill-take-it-here <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><P><A href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/" target=_blank>People, Spaces, Deliberation </A>bloggers present exceptional campaign art from all over the world. These examples are meant to inspire.</P> <P><IFRAME src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/F-ZZeE7C7uM" frameBorder=0 width=500 height=315 allowfullscreen=""></IFRAME></P> <P></div></div></div> Wed, 24 Oct 2012 18:24:34 +0000 Kalliope Kokolis 6136 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Weekly Wire: the Global Forum https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/weekly-wire-global-forum-78 <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><P><IMG height=120 alt="" hspace=0 src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/weekly_wire_photo.jpeg" width=121 align=left border=0></P> <P>These are some of the views and reports relevant to our readers that caught our attention this week.</P> <P><STRONG>International Center for Journalists<BR></STRONG><A href="https://www.icfj.org/blogs/digital-map-track-corruption-launches-colombia" target=_blank>Digital Map to Track Corruption Launches in Colombia</A></P> <P>“A new digital mapping tool to track and monitor corruption in Colombia on a national scale, launched July 24th a result of our partnership with the Consejo de Redacción, a country-wide organization of investigative journalists.</P> <P>The "Monitor de Corrupción" (or "Corruption Monitor") will provide journalists and citizens a platform to submit reports that will expose and map incidents of corruption.</P> <P>It’s a project I anticipate will contribute to making Colombia a more transparent and stronger society. The idea for this grew out of another similar project by Knight Fellow Jorge Luis Sierra.”&nbsp; <A href="https://www.icfj.org/blogs/digital-map-track-corruption-launches-colombia" target=_blank>READ MORE&nbsp;</A><BR>&nbsp;</div></div></div> Thu, 26 Jul 2012 14:33:12 +0000 Kalliope Kokolis 6051 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Campaign Art: I Predict... https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/campaign-art-i-predict <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><P><A href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/" target=_blank>People, Spaces, Deliberation </A>bloggers present exceptional campaign art from all over the world. These examples are meant to inspire.<BR>&nbsp;</P> <P><IFRAME src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/vEUIQd9kk0Y" frameBorder=0 width=500 height=315 allowfullscreen=""></IFRAME></P> <P></div></div></div> Wed, 18 Jul 2012 14:40:15 +0000 Kalliope Kokolis 6043 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere