land rights https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/taxonomy/term/3752/all en Weekly wire: The global forum https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/weekly-wire-global-forum-295 <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <strong><a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/2183144613_51456feb78_z_1_9.jpg" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><img alt="" height="178" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/2183144613_51456feb78_z_1_9.jpg" style="float:right" title="" width="180" /></a>These are some of the views and reports relevant to our readers that caught our attention this week.</strong><br /><br /><strong><span><a href="https://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/humanitarian-action-and-non-state-armed-groups-international-legal-framework" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Humanitarian Action and Non-state Armed Groups: The International Legal Framework</a></span><br /> Chatham House</strong><br /> A significant number of current conflicts involve non-state armed groups (NSAGs) that exercise control over territory and civilians. Often these civilians are in need of assistance. International humanitarian law (IHL) provides that if the party to an armed conflict with control of civilians is unable or unwilling to meet their needs, offers may be made to carry out relief actions that are humanitarian and impartial in character. The consent of affected states is required but may not be arbitrarily withheld. Once consent has been obtained, parties must allow and facilitate rapid and unimpeded passage of humanitarian relief operations. In responding, humanitarian actors must overcome numerous challenges, including insecurity arising from active hostilities or a breakdown in law and order, or bureaucratic constraints imposed by the parties to the conflict.</p> <p> <strong><a href="https://www.dw.com/downloads/37089903/dw-akademiemeasuring-the-business-side2016.pdf?utm_source=DMM+1%2F27%2F2017&amp;utm_campaign=DMM+9-23&amp;utm_medium=email" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Measuring the Business Side: Indicators to Assess Media Viability</a><br /> DW Akademie</strong><br /> In times of digital transformation media all over the world have to come up with new ways to ensure their survival. Meanwhile, media development actors are searching for new concepts and orientation in their support of media organizations and media markets. This paper presents DW Akademie’s suggestion for new indicators to measure economic viability. The criteria not only take into account the financial strategies and managerial structures of individual media outlets, but also the overall economic conditions in a country as well as the structures of the media market needed to ensure independence, pluralism and professional standards. After all, money talks – and media development should listen.<br /></div></div></div> Thu, 09 Feb 2017 14:54:00 +0000 Darejani Markozashvili 7631 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere #5 from 2016: Land Tenure: What have we learned four years after approving a set of international land tenure guidelines? https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/5-2016-land-tenure-what-have-we-learned-four-years-after-approving-set-international-land-tenure <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><div style="margin:0px; padding:0px; border:0px currentColor; vertical-align:baseline"> <div style="margin:0px; padding:0px; border:0px currentColor; vertical-align:baseline"> <div style="margin:0px; padding:0px; border:0px currentColor; vertical-align:baseline"> <strong><em>Our Top Ten blog posts by readership in 2016.<span> </span></em></strong><em>This post was <a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/land-tenure-what-have-we-learned-four-years-after-approving-set-international-land-tenure-guidelines" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">originally published </a>on June 13, 2016.  </em><br /><br />   <figure class="image" style="float:left"><a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/7439971728_9af73454e6_z.jpg" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><img alt="" height="191" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/7439971728_9af73454e6_z.jpg" style="padding:2px; border:1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); vertical-align:bottom; max-width:100%" title="Photo by Links Media/USAID" width="340" /></a> <figcaption><em>Asilya Gemmal displays her land certificate, given by<br /> the Ethiopian government, with USAID assistance.</em></figcaption></figure> "Congratulations, today your baby is four years old,” Iris Krebber, DFID/UK recently emailed me.  Iris was not referring to a child, but rather the Voluntary Guidelines for the Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forest (VGGT), an agreement I had the challenging pleasure of bringing to life by chairing a UN negotiation process that resulted in the first globally agreed recommendations for addressing land, fisheries, and forests governance.  Often colleagues don’t remember my name, but they call me “the land guy,” which I suppose is better than the “dirt guy.”<br /><br /> The call for an international set of guidelines came from many quarters between 2008 and 2010, but was largely driven by concerns raised in international fora by civil society, member states, development partners, and the private sector. These concerns primarily pertained to food security (and specifically food price spikes) and access, and rights to land and other resources by small, medium and large scale producers as they impact investments in food production systems.  <br />   <div> <a href="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/cfs_2.png" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><img alt="" height="136" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/cfs_2.png" style="padding:2px; border:1px solid rgb(204, 204, 204); vertical-align:bottom; max-width:none; float:right" title="" width="280" /></a></div> One of the more notable concerns driving the development of the Guidelines was related to large scale land acquisitions (including what some organizations may sometimes refer to as “land grabbing”). Through a technical process FAO developed the initial draft of the Guidelines, and then initiated a process of input and consultation over two years before the document was given to the UN Committee for World Food Security (UN CFS) for negotiation.<br /><br /> As the subject of land rights can be very political (no international guidance can address the plethora of land challenges from Latin America to Africa to Asia and beyond with one-solution fits-all-problems), and civil society organizations, member states, and the private sector often have different views and needs in achieving their respective objectives, you can imagine it was not an easy task for CFS to agree to a set of guidelines. <p> </div></div></div> Wed, 04 Jan 2017 16:04:00 +0000 Gregory Myers 7599 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Land Tenure: What have we learned four years after approving a set of international land tenure guidelines? https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/land-tenure-what-have-we-learned-four-years-after-approving-set-international-land-tenure-guidelines <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><figure class="image" style="float:left"> <img alt="" height="191" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/7439971728_9af73454e6_z.jpg" title="Photo by Links Media/USAID" width="340" /> <figcaption> <em>Asilya Gemmal displays her land certificate, given by<br /> the Ethiopian government, with USAID assistance.</em></figcaption> </figure> “Congratulations, today your baby is four years old,” Iris Krebber, DFID/UK recently emailed me. Iris was not referring to a child, but rather the Voluntary Guidelines for the Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forest (VGGT), an agreement I had the challenging pleasure of bringing to life by chairing a UN negotiation process that resulted in the first globally agreed recommendations for addressing land, fisheries, and forests governance. Often colleagues don’t remember my name, but they call me “the land guy,” which I suppose is better than the “dirt guy.”<br /> <br /> The call for an international set of guidelines came from many quarters between 2008 and 2010, but was largely driven by concerns raised in international fora by civil society, member states, development partners, and the private sector. These concerns primarily pertained to food security (and specifically food price spikes) and access, and rights to land and other resources by small, medium and large scale producers as they impact investments in food production systems. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> <img alt="" height="136" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/cfs_2.png" style="float:right" title="" width="280" />One of the more notable concerns driving the development of the Guidelines was related to large scale land acquisitions (including what some organizations may sometimes refer to as “land grabbing”). Through a technical process FAO developed the initial draft of the Guidelines, and then initiated a process of input and consultation over two years before the document was given to the UN Committee for World Food Security (UN CFS) for negotiation.<br /> <br /> As the subject of land rights can be very political (no international guidance can address the plethora of land challenges from Latin America to Africa to Asia and beyond with one-solution fits-all-problems), and civil society organizations, member states, and the private sector often have different views and needs in achieving their respective objectives, you can imagine it was not an easy task for CFS to agree to a set of guidelines. <p> </div></div></div> Mon, 13 Jun 2016 14:51:00 +0000 Gregory Myers 7428 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere How to help communities protect their lands https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/how-help-communities-protect-their-lands <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><figure class="image" style="float:left"><img alt="" height="210" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/kenya_land_alliance_facilitates_a_meeting_in_chara_community_kenya_using_the_process_laid_out_in_namatis_facilitators_guide2.jpg" title="Kenya Land Alliance facilitates a meeting in Chara community" width="280" /><figcaption> Kenya Land Alliance facilitates a meeting<br /> with the community of Chara, in Tana<br /> River county</figcaption></figure><p> The scale of the global land grab is <a href="https://www.landmatrix.org/en/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">staggering</a>. While international actors have made excellent progress establishing <a href="https://www.rspo.org/about" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">complaint boards</a>, issuing <a href="https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/GuidingPrinciplesBusinessHR_EN.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">principles for responsible investment</a>, and <a href="https://www.behindthebrands.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">securing commitments from multi­national corporations</a>, these protections do not chart a clear course of action that communities can follow to protect their lands and natural resources before an investor arrives seeking land. <br /><br /> The problem is that once an investor arrives to “consult with” a community, it may be too late.  After a deal has been made in capital city conference rooms or in clandestine meetings between chiefs and company representatives, communities are forced on the defensive. At this point, all they can do is try to mitigate the negative impacts of investors' plans rather than assertively proclaiming their legal rights, demanding that the investor abide by <a href="https://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">FPIC</a> principles, and then choosing whether to reject the investment or accept it on terms that ensure that the community benefits and prospers.<br /><br /> Meanwhile, many of the “investors” grabbing land are national or local elites unaccountable to international  institutions  –  the cousin of the President or the nephew  of the Minister – who operate with complete impunity, protected by powerful connections to government, the judiciary and the police. Such individuals do not answer to shareholders or complaint boards, and are not the least bit concerned with principles of corporate social responsibility. If a community’s land claims  are unrecognized or undocumented – and if the community’s leadership is weak or corrupt – the easier it is for these elites to manipulate their power to claim what land they want.<br /><br /> To have a fighting chance against elites’ bad­faith actions, communities must proactively take steps to know and enforce their rights, prevent their leaders from transacting land without community approval, and seek legal recognition of their land claims.  And they must do so before elites and investors arrive. </p> </div></div></div> Mon, 14 Mar 2016 18:38:00 +0000 Rachael Knight 7338 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Learning the lessons of land protection from Africa’s justice advocates https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/learning-lessons-land-protection-africa-s-justice-advocates <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="Looking out onto irrigated fields, Nigeria" height="187" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/7826332218_435f33dd83_z.jpg" style="float:left" title="Photo by Arne Hoel / World Bank" width="280" />Rural communities across Africa face a variety of threats to their customary and indigenous land and natural resource claims. The drivers of these threats are diverse: increasing foreign investment, national elite speculation, rising population densities, climate change, and national infrastructure mega-projects, to name a few.<br />  <br /> The introduction of such external destabilizing influences often sets off a cascade of resulting intra-community challenges. In most communities, the challenges are multiple and overlapping: the divisive tactics of investors may pit community members against one another; state infrastructure development may claim the communal areas communities depend upon for their livelihoods and survival and create intra-community conflicts over scarce resources; elites seeking land may make back-room deals with leaders, undermining community trust of local leaders.<br />  <br /> Land rights advocates and practitioners are frequently called upon to support communities facing such issues. However, when practitioners engage deeply with these communities, it often becomes clear that a multiplicity of factors and trends have weakened the communities’ ability to respond effectively to the conflict or threat – therefore requiring use of a variety of simultaneous strategies to ensure successful outcomes. The threats and trends are often directly and cyclically linked, with negative trends exposing communities to additional threats.</p> </div></div></div> Wed, 10 Feb 2016 20:07:00 +0000 Rachael Knight 7303 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Weekly Wire: The Global Forum https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/weekly-wire-global-forum-175 <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"> <br /><img alt="" height="139" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/Weekly%20Wire%20Photo_1.jpeg" style="float:right" width="140" />These are some of the views and reports relevant to our readers that caught our attention this week.<br /><br /><br /><strong><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/03/opinion/sunday/evgeny-morozov-facebooks-gateway-drug.html?_r=0" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Facebook’s Gateway Drug</a></strong><br /> The New York Times<br /> SILICON VALLEY was once content to dominate the tech world. But recently, its leading companies have ventured deep into areas well outside its traditional bailiwick, most notably international development — promising to transform a field once dominated by national governments and international institutions into a permanent playground of hackathons and app-fueled disruption.  To observe this venture humanitarianism in action, look no further than <a href="https://internet.org/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Internet.org</a>, a coalition of <a href="https://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/business/companies/facebook_inc/index.html?inline=nyt-org" target="_blank" title="More information about Facebook, Inc." rel="nofollow">Facebook</a>, Samsung and several other large tech companies that promises to bring low-cost Internet access to people in underserviced parts of the world, via smartphones. <br /><br /><a href="https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/141531/erik-brynjolfsson-andrew-mcafee-and-michael-spence/new-world-order" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><strong>New World Order, Labor, Capital, and Ideas in the Power Law Economy</strong></a><br /> Foreign Affairs<br /> Recent advances in technology have created an increasingly unified global marketplace for labor and capital. The ability of both to flow to their highest-value uses, regardless of their location, is equalizing their prices across the globe. In recent years, this broad factor-price equalization has benefited nations with abundant low-cost labor and those with access to cheap capital. Some have argued that the current era of rapid technological progress serves labor, and some have argued that it serves capital. What both camps have slighted is the fact that technology is not only integrating existing sources of labor and capital but also creating new ones<strong>.</strong> </div></div></div> Thu, 07 Aug 2014 13:41:00 +0000 Roxanne Bauer 6781 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere