service delivery https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/taxonomy/term/846/all en Campaign Art: Disruptive technologies and development goals https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/campaign-art-disruptive-technologies-and-development-goals <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><strong>People, Spaces, Deliberation bloggers present exceptional campaign art from all over the world. These examples are meant to inspire.</strong><br /><br /> Disruptive technologies are redefining the way of life. Everyone is buzzing about drones, driverless cars, autopilot planes, robots, and supply chains, starting from the entertainment industry, to agriculture and food sector, to private sector, to humanitarian and development fields. Drones delivering food, water, or health supplies, using off-grid power, innovative mobile apps, and other technological developments are all very exciting and unknown at the same time.<br /><br /> How will drones impact the supply chains and service delivery in the future? What are the opportunities and risks associated with utilizing drones to deliver supplies? What is the role of technology in helping us reach Sustainable Development Goals? I can’t pretend I have answers to any of these questions, nor do I dare predict what our future may look like in 10,20,30 years. However, it sure is interesting to look at the recent technological developments and try to understand what their role may be in the future.  <br /><br /> That’s where the unlikely and innovative story of <a href="https://flyzipline.com/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Zipline International Inc</a>. and the Government of Rwanda comes in. Last fall the Government of Rwanda partnered with the California-based robotics company Zipline International Inc. and became the first country in the world to incorporate drone technology into its health care system by delivering blood and medical supplies to 21 hospitals across Rwanda’s Southern and Western provinces.<br />  <div class="asset-wrapper asset aid-372 asset-video"> <strong > Delivering blood </strong> <div class="content"> <div class="field field-name-field-asset-video-file field-type-emvideo field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><object type="application/x-shockwave-flash" width="640" height="360" data="//www.youtube.com/v/aNvqOBwLluc"> <param name="movie" value="//www.youtube.com/v/aNvqOBwLluc" /> <param name="wmode" value="transparent" /> <param name="allowFullScreen" value="true" /> </object> </div></div></div></div> </div> <p> Source: Zipline</p> </div></div></div> Wed, 10 May 2017 18:07:00 +0000 Darejani Markozashvili 7715 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere The ‘decentralisation agenda’ must succeed https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/decentralisation-agenda-must-succeed <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="Morocco" height="180" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/2693408446_33d9519222_z.jpg" style="float:right" title=" © Curt Carnemark / World Bank" width="280" />Duncan Green’s blog hosted <a href="https://oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/is-decentralization-good-for-development/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">a post by LSE’s Jean-Paul Faguet</a> titled: <em>Is Decentralisation good for Development? </em>Faguet has edited a book by the same name that you can find <a href="https://global.oup.com/academic/product/is-decentralization-good-for-development-9780198737506?cc=gb&amp;lang=en&amp;" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">here</a>. This is a subject very close to my heart, and I believe in decentralisation as a value, just as I believe in democracy. It is often a work in progress, but it is a project worth persisting with, an ideal worth pursuing. Faguet’s research (at least, my interpretation of his work) therefore, really speaks to me. In this post, he makes several interesting and compelling points. For instance:</p> <p> On the advantage of competitive politics generated by decentralised systems:</p> <blockquote> <p> <em>Imagine you live in a centralized country, a hurricane is coming, and the government is inept. To whom can you turn? No one – you’re sunk. In a decentralized country, ineptitude in regional government implies nothing about the ability of local government. And even if both regional and local governments are inept, central government is independently constituted, probably run by a different party, and may be able to help. Indeed, the very fact of multiple government levels in a democracy generates a competitive dynamic in which candidates and parties use the far greater number of platforms to outdo each other by showing competence, and project themselves hierarchically upwards.  In a centralized system, by contrast, there is only really one – very big – prize, and not much of a training ground on which to prepare</em>.</p> </blockquote> </div></div></div> Wed, 06 Apr 2016 18:33:00 +0000 Suvojit Chattopadhyay 7361 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Helping communicate the potential of PPPs through a new, free online course https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/helping-communicate-potential-ppps-through-new-free-online-course <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><h4> Public-Private Partnerships (PPP): How can PPPs help deliver better services? New, free massive open online course (MOOC) course provides an understanding of the key principles of PPPs and the role of PPPs in the delivery of infrastructure services, particularly in emerging markets.</h4> <p> <img alt="Public-Private Partnerships MOOC" height="164" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/ppp_mooc.jpg" style="float:right" title="" width="280" />The World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and promoting shared prosperity can’t be achieved unless we see a huge boost in the quality and quantity of infrastructure services. Boost infrastructure and do it right and you can generate jobs and boost economic growth. Improving sanitation and access to clean water is essential to improve health outcomes. <br />  <br /> According to World Bank President Jim Yong Kim, “Today, the developing world spends about $1 trillion on infrastructure, and only a small share of those projects involves private actors. Overall, private investments and public-private partnerships in developing countries totaled $150 billion in 2013, down from $186 billion in 2012. So it will take the commitment of all of us to help low- and middle-income countries bridge the massive infrastructure divide.”<br />  <br /> Public-private partnerships (PPPs) can be an important way for governments to help supplement the role of the public sector in meeting the infrastructure deficit.  But PPPs are controversial – there have been some high profile, expensive failures, and some stakeholders feel the private sector should not be involved in providing basic infrastructure services like water. <br />  </p> </div></div></div> Mon, 18 May 2015 19:41:00 +0000 Clive Harris 7052 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Weekly Wire: The Global Forum https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/weekly-wire-global-forum-202 <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" height="139" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/Weekly%20Wire%20Photo_1.jpeg" style="float:right" title="" width="140" />These are some of the views and reports relevant to our readers that caught our attention this week.<br /><br /><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2015/feb/26/tomorrows-world-development-megatrends-challenging-ngos" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><strong>Tomorrow’s world: seven development megatrends challenging NGOs</strong></a><br /> The Guardian<br /> As we move into 2015, many UK-based NGOs are wondering how to meet the challenges of a crucial year. What is the unique and distinct value that each organisation, and the UK sector as a whole, brings to international development, and how might this change in future? To help the sector get on the front foot we have identified seven “megatrends” and posed a few questions to highlight some of the key choices NGOs might need to make. At the end of next week we’ll be concluding a consultation with DfID on the future of the sector – all your thoughts are welcome.<br /><br /><a href="https://gigaom.com/2015/03/04/affordability-report-shows-why-emerging-markets-need-smart-internet-policies/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><strong>Why emerging markets need smart internet policies</strong></a><br /> Gigaom<br /> The Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) has released its latest study into, well, the affordability of internet access. The study shows how big the challenge is on that front in emerging markets – for over two billion people there, fixed-line broadband costs on average 40 percent of their monthly income, and mobile broadband costs on average 10 percent of their monthly income. The United Nations’ “affordability target” for internet access is five percent of monthly income, so there’s clearly a ways to go in many developing countries. Almost 60 percent of global households are still unconnected and, unsurprisingly, those who can’t afford to get online tend to be poor, in rural communities and/or women.</p> </div></div></div> Thu, 12 Mar 2015 14:06:00 +0000 Roxanne Bauer 6990 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere #9 from 2014: Exit, Voice, and Service Delivery for the Poor https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/9-2014-exit-voice-and-service-delivery-poor <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <em><strong>Our Top Ten blog posts by readership in 2014. </strong><br /> This post was originally posted on January 08, 2014</em><br /><br /><img alt="" height="210" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/Worbel.jpg" style="float:left" title="" width="280" />Inspired by Jeremy Adelman’s wonderful biography of Albert Hirschman (<a href="https://press.princeton.edu/titles/9935.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><em>Worldly Philosopher: The Odyssey of Albert O. Hirschman</em></a>, Princeton University Press, 2013), I’ve read and reread Hirschman’s masterpiece, <a href="https://books.google.com/books/about/Exit_Voice_and_Loyalty.html?id=vYO6sDvjvcgC&amp;redir_esc=y" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><em>Exit, Voice and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States</em></a><em>, </em>(Harvard University Press, 1970) and his follow up essay “Exit, Voice, and State” (reprinted in <a href="https://press.princeton.edu/titles/10081.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><em>The Essential Hirschman</em></a>, Princeton University Press, 2013). Although Hirschman produced these works over 40 years ago, his simple model of flight (“exit”) or resistance (“voice”) in the face of unsatisfactory economic, political or social conditions remains highly relevant for policymakers and development practitioners concerned with eliminating extreme poverty, reducing inequality, and improving basic services accessible to the poor.<br /><br /> Hirschman’s ideas provide much cause for reflection within the context of present-day Indonesia. Indonesia has enjoyed over a decade of macroeconomic stability and economic growth. From 2000 to 2011 GDP expanded by 5.3 percent per year, and the official poverty count halved from 24 percent in 1999 to 12 percent in 2012. This period also saw notable improvements in health and education. Access to education has become more widespread and equitable. Girls are now as likely as boys to graduate from secondary school. In health, Indonesia is on track to meet Millennium Development Goals for reducing both the prevalence of underweight children under five years old, and the under-five mortality rate.</p> </div></div></div> Tue, 23 Dec 2014 17:21:00 +0000 Robert Wrobel 6916 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere The Things We Do: Saving for Change https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/things-we-do-saving-change <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" height="188" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/2628527233_4e19614c5e_o.jpg" style="float:left" title="" width="280" /><!--StartFragment --> At the basis of communication and public policy are assumptions about human beings- their rationality or irrationality, their foibles, wants and preferences. A lot depends on whether these assumptions are correct. In this feature, we bring you fascinating examples of human behavior from across the globe.<br /><br /> Saving money is hard.  However, it is also considered to be necessary for making large purchases like a house or car, opening up a business, or planning for retirement. Saving can be particularly difficult for the poor who live day-by-day and do not have much disposable income.  In wealthier countries, financial institutions offer a variety of products to help their clients set aside savings, but in poorer countries, there are fewer savings options. Many poor people end up hiding cash, investing in assets such as livestock or land, or <a href="https://media.microfinancelessons.com/resources/Economics_poverty_rutherford.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">engaging in informal savings arrangements</a>. <br /><br /> Yet, for those who have even a little money to stow away, the benefits can be enormous. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) economists Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo have found that <a href="https://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.21.1.141" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">even those who live on less than $1 per day have the ability save</a> and often spend money on nonessential items such as alcohol, tobacco, and televisions.  Moreover, when poor people increase their earnings, they spend only two-thirds of their increased income on food.  These findings suggest that poor people do have funds to save.<br /><br /> But why is it so difficult for people of all income levels to save?</p> </div></div></div> Tue, 12 Aug 2014 16:21:00 +0000 Roxanne Bauer 6785 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Information Alone is Not Enough: It’s All About Who Uses It, and Why https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/information-alone-not-enough-it-s-all-about-who-uses-it-and-why <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <strong><a href="https://www.odi.org.uk/sites/odi.org.uk/files/public_services_at_the_cross_roads_-_very_much_complete.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><img alt="" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/5094791714_9a8b11a929_o.jpg" style="float:left; height:187px; width:280px" /></a></strong><em>It is 10 years since the World Bank launched its landmark World Development Report (WDR), Making Services Work For Poor People. A decade later, what have we learnt about the science and politics of service delivery – and what are the emerging issues that will shape future priorities? The recent anniversary Conference in Washington D.C., co-hosted by ODI and the World Bank, with support from the UK Department for International Development, discussed new developments, data and trends in public service delivery since 2004 across a range of service delivery sectors.</em></p> <p> <em>In the <a href="https://www.odi.org.uk/sites/odi.org.uk/files/public_services_at_the_cross_roads_-_very_much_complete.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">conference report</a>, ODI experts share their reflections on the conference and on future directions in five key areas for service delivery: information and incentives, behavioral economics and social norms, financing service delivery, fragile states and the politics of delivery. This article by Leni Wild talks about information and incentives.</em><br /><br /> There is still a gap to be filled between having more information and figuring out whether and how services improve. However, February’s joint <a href="https://www.odi.org.uk/events/wdr-conference-making-services-work-for-poor-people" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">ODI and World Bank Conference</a> marking ten years since the World Development Report (WDR) on<a href="https://wdronline.worldbank.org/worldbank/a/c.html/world_development_report_2004/abstract/WB.0-8213-5468-X.abstract" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"> Making Services Work for Poor People</a> flagged up where progress has been made, and what we are learning about the role information can – and cannot – play here.</p> <p> </div></div></div> Tue, 25 Mar 2014 19:28:00 +0000 Leni Wild 6648 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere What have We Learned on Getting Public Services to Poor People? What’s Next? https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/what-have-we-learned-getting-public-services-poor-people-what-s-next <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <em>Ten years after the World Development Report 2004, the ODI’s <a href="https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&amp;rct=j&amp;q=&amp;esrc=s&amp;source=web&amp;cd=1&amp;cad=rja&amp;uact=8&amp;ved=0CDAQFjAA&amp;url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.odi.org.uk%2Fabout%2Fstaff%2F133-marta-foresti&amp;ei=8DMtU8OxDIGqhQeO6YGgCg&amp;usg=AFQjCNHAnaH6Ji6JZ1I9Y4miDcbeF4LLig&amp;sig2=kBXtOG1L08xNlzGk4bcVOw&amp;bvm=bv.62922401,d.ZG4" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Marta Foresti</a> reflects on the past decade and implications for the future<a href="https://oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Marta-Foresti.jpg" rel="nofollow"><img alt="Marta Foresti" src="https://oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Marta-Foresti-150x150.jpg" style="float:right; height:150px; width:150px" /></a></em></p> <p> Why do so many countries still fail to deliver adequate services to their citizens? And why does this problem persist even in countries with rapid economic growth and relatively robust institutions or policies?</p> <p> This was the problem addressed by the World Bank’s ground-breaking 2004 World Development Report (WDR) <a href="https://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTWDRS/0,,contentMDK:23062333~pagePK:478093~piPK:477627~theSitePK:477624,00.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><em>Making Services Work for Poor People</em></a>. At its core was the recognition that politics and accountability are vital to improve services and that aid donors ignore this at their peril. Ten years on, these issues are still at the heart of the development agenda, as discussed at <a href="https://www.odi.org.uk/events/wdr-conference-making-services-work-for-poor-people" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">the anniversary conference</a> organised jointly by ODI and the World Bank in late February.</p> <p> As much as this was a moment to celebrate the influence of the WDR 2004 on a decade of development thinking and practice, it also highlighted just how far we have to go before every citizen around the world has access to good quality basic services such as education, health, water and electricity.</p> </div></div></div> Mon, 24 Mar 2014 16:45:00 +0000 Duncan Green 6647 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Exit, Voice, and Service Delivery for the Poor https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/exit-voice-and-service-delivery-poor <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/Worbel.jpg" style="float:left; height:210px; width:280px" />Inspired by Jeremy Adelman’s wonderful biography of Albert Hirschman (<a href="https://press.princeton.edu/titles/9935.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><em>Worldly Philosopher: The Odyssey of Albert O. Hirschman</em></a>, Princeton University Press, 2013), I’ve read and reread Hirschman’s masterpiece, <a href="https://books.google.com/books/about/Exit_Voice_and_Loyalty.html?id=vYO6sDvjvcgC&amp;redir_esc=y" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><em>Exit, Voice and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States</em></a><em>, </em>(Harvard University Press, 1970) and his follow up essay “Exit, Voice, and State” (reprinted in <a href="https://press.princeton.edu/titles/10081.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"><em>The Essential Hirschman</em></a>, Princeton University Press, 2013). Although Hirschman produced these works over 40 years ago, his simple model of flight (“exit”) or resistance (“voice”) in the face of unsatisfactory economic, political or social conditions remains highly relevant for policymakers and development practitioners concerned with eliminating extreme poverty, reducing inequality, and improving basic services accessible to the poor.<br />  <br /> Hirschman’s ideas provide much cause for reflection within the context of present-day Indonesia. Indonesia has enjoyed over a decade of macroeconomic stability and economic growth. From 2000 to 2011 GDP expanded by 5.3 percent per year, and the official poverty count halved from 24 percent in 1999 to 12 percent in 2012.  This period also saw notable improvements in health and education. Access to education has become more widespread and equitable. Girls are now as likely as boys to graduate from secondary school. In health, Indonesia is on track to meet Millennium Development Goals for reducing both the prevalence of underweight children under five years old, and the under-five mortality rate.<br />  </p> </div></div></div> Wed, 08 Jan 2014 19:23:00 +0000 Robert Wrobel 6573 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere #5 from 2013: Using Twitter to Run Cities Better: Governance @SF311 https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/governance-sf311 <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/sftwitter.jpg" style="float:left; height:399px; width:281px" /><em><strong>Our Top Ten Blog Posts by readership in 2013</strong><br /> This post was originally published on January 24, 2013</em><br /> <br /> It will soon be nearly four years since then San Francisco mayor, Gavin Newsom visited Twitter headquarters.&nbsp; He told Biz Stone (one of the Twitter founders) about how someone from the city had sent him a Twitter message about a pothole.&nbsp; <a href="https://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2348072,00.asp" target="_blank">A discussion</a> about "how we can get Twitter to be involved in advancing, streamlining, and supporting the governance of cities," led to the creation of @SF311 on Twitter that would allow live reporting by citizens of service needs, feedback, and other communication.&nbsp; Perhaps the most innovative aspect at that time was that citizens would be able to communicate directly and transparently with the Government.&nbsp; San Francisco was the first US city to roll out a major service such as this on Twitter.</p> <p> Twitter offers several advantages over phonecalls or written requests made by citizens, some of which I have mentioned before:</div></div></div> Fri, 03 Jan 2014 18:07:00 +0000 Tanya Gupta 6219 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): Challenges for Poverty Reduction and Service Delivery in the Rural-Urban Continuum https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/millennium-development-goals-mdgs-challenges-poverty-reduction-and-service-delivery-rural-urban <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/Johanna/9345891618_73eb3a2563.jpg" style="float:left; height:186px; width:280px" />The progress in achieving the target set for the <a href="https://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)</a> continues to be diverse across goals and regions. The goals aim at actualizing a universal standard of being free from grinding poverty, being educated and healthy and having ready access to clean water and sanitation. While progress has lagged for education and health related MDGs, the proportion of people living in extreme poverty has indeed fallen. To accelerate further progress in the latter, development strategies have to attempt to increase not only the rate of growth but also the share of income going to the poorest section of the population along the rural-urban continuum.<br /><br /> Economic projections for developing countries prepared by the <a href="https://www.worldbank.org" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">World Bank</a> state that approximately 970 million people will continue in 2015 to live below $1.25 a day. This would be equivalent to 15.5% of the population in the developing world. Herein, the pertinent challenge of reducing extreme poverty through creation of new income opportunities and better delivery of basic services largely remains in rural areas. In addition, such poverty is concentrated more in Asia (East and South) and Sub Saharan Africa with 38% and 46% of their poor residing in rural areas respectively. Thus, the task of effective rural development remains daunting. But the latter has to be operationalized and implemented holistically, and more importantly, in context of the complexities posed by the rural -urban continuum.</p> </div></div></div> Tue, 17 Sep 2013 20:57:00 +0000 Abhilaksh Likhi 6469 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere When do Transparency and Accountability Initiatives have impact? https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/when-do-transparency-and-accountability-initiatives-have-impact <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/ID-100174881_0.jpg" style="float:left; height:218px; width:240px" />So having <a href="https://www.oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/?p=15465" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">berated ODI</a> about opening up access to its recent issue of the Development Policy Review on Transparency and Accountability Initiatives (TAIs), I really ought to review the <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/dpr.12017/pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">overview piece</a> by <a href="https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&amp;rct=j&amp;q=&amp;esrc=s&amp;source=web&amp;cd=2&amp;cad=rja&amp;ved=0CDgQFjAB&amp;url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FJohn_Gaventa&amp;ei=qL0lUpCeKIvuiAfw_YHIBA&amp;usg=AFQjCNEZN4_xFupq5JNC7JmHdd5CJsg1uQ&amp;sig2=Xux_Sj_MrZbuLapWUp5kdQ&amp;bvm=bv.51495398,d.a" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">John Gaventa</a> and <a href="https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&amp;rct=j&amp;q=&amp;esrc=s&amp;source=web&amp;cd=1&amp;cad=rja&amp;sqi=2&amp;ved=0CC8QFjAA&amp;url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ids.ac.uk%2Fperson%2Frosemary-mcgee&amp;ei=wb0lUp-sJ8TJkwXXzYGwCg&amp;usg=AFQjCNG8df_-S0r4huQDFL1g0GnfQvfvKw&amp;sig2=KAKut9NO2SzhkBob6r_Taw&amp;bvm=bv.51495" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Rosemary McGee</a>, which they’ve made freely available until December.</p> <p> The essay is well worth reading. It unpicks the fuzzy concept of TAIs and then looks at the evidence for what works and when. First a useful typology of TAIs:</p> <p> ‘Service delivery is perhaps the field in which TAIs have been longest applied, including <a href="https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&amp;rct=j&amp;q=&amp;esrc=s&amp;source=web&amp;cd=1&amp;cad=rja&amp;ved=0CDQQFjAA&amp;url=http%3A%2F%2Fweb.worldbank.org%2FWBSITE%2FEXTERNAL%2FTOPICS%2FEXTSOCIALDEVELOPMENT%2FEXTPCENG%2F0%2C%2CcontentMDK%3A20507700~pagePK%3A148956~piPK%3A216618~theSitePK" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Expenditure Tracking Surveys</a>, <a href="https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&amp;rct=j&amp;q=&amp;esrc=s&amp;source=web&amp;cd=3&amp;cad=rja&amp;ved=0CEEQFjAC&amp;url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.citizenreportcard.com%2F&amp;ei=_r0lUvOsOK2WiQeB14HgBg&amp;usg=AFQjCNEHe_AMtIIyepibfCtWDPl3vr7SxQ&amp;sig2=jYEsf1diS7GO5yY2DxjEQQ&amp;bvm=bv.51495398,d.aGc" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">citizen report cards</a>, score cards, community monitoring and <a href="https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/social-audit.asp" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">social audits</a>.</p> <p> By the late 1990s, moves to improve public finance management the world over led to the development of budget accountability and transparency as a sector in its own right…. An array of citizen-led budget TAIs has developed, including <a href="https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&amp;rct=j&amp;q=&amp;esrc=s&amp;source=web&amp;cd=3&amp;cad=rja&amp;sqi=2&amp;ved=0CEsQFjAC&amp;url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FParticipatory_budgeting&amp;ei=B78lUoyMO8KrkAXW7ICICg&amp;usg=AFQjCNE66Fv4-wxCrodgAv_EL9eioV-rwA&amp;sig2=KcpvP3mGiTorXdpfnwtbsA&amp;bv" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">participatory budgeting</a>; sector-specific budget monitoring (for example, gender budgeting, children’s budgets); public-expenditure monitoring through social audits, participatory audits and tracking surveys; and advocacy for budget transparency (for example, the <a href="https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&amp;rct=j&amp;q=&amp;esrc=s&amp;source=web&amp;cd=2&amp;cad=rja&amp;ved=0CEYQFjAB&amp;url=http%3A%2F%2Finternationalbudget.org%2F&amp;ei=R74lUuenOqq6iQfv4YCwDA&amp;usg=AFQjCNFh954MW-CdbDo7c9Ij2nFfUddfvw&amp;sig2=FVsz8eNyvu3CwpilNVVgTQ&amp;bvm=bv.51495398,d.aGc" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">International Budget Partnership</a> (IBP)’s Open Budget Index). Many of these initiatives focus ‘downstream’ on how public funds are spent; less work focuses on T and A in revenue-generation, although this is growing with recent work on tax justice.</p> </div></div></div> Thu, 12 Sep 2013 14:10:00 +0000 Duncan Green 6466 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Ups and Downs in the Struggle for Accountability – Four New Real Time Studies https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/ups-and-downs-struggle-accountability-four-new-real-time-studies <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/ibp-logo1-300x78.jpg" style="float:right; height:78px; width:300px" />OK, we’ve had <a href="https://www.oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/?p=15747" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">real time evaluations</a>, we’ve done <a href="https://www.oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/?p=15793" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">transparency and accountability initiatives</a>, so why not combine the two? The thoroughly brilliant <a href="https://internationalbudget.org/who-we-are/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">International Budget Partnership</a> is doing just that, teaming up with academic researchers to follow in real time the ups and downs of four TAIs in <a href="https://internationalbudget.org/publications/health-citizenship-and-human-rights-advocacy-initiative-improving-access-to-health-services-in-mexico/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Mexico</a>, <a href="https://internationalbudget.org/publications/the-art-of-getting-in-the-way-five-years-of-the-bndes-platform-2/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Brazil</a>, <a href="https://internationalbudget.org/publications/when-opportunity-beckons-the-impact-of-the-public-service-accountability-monitors-work-on-improving-health-budgets-in-south-africa/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">South Africa</a> and <a href="https://internationalbudget.org/publications/raising-the-stakes-the-impact-of-hakielimus-advocacy-work-on-education-policy-and-budget-in-tanzania/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Tanzania</a>. Read the case study summaries (only four pages each, with full versions if you want to go deeper), if you can, but below I’ll copy most of the overview blog by IBP research manager Albert van Zyl.</p> <p> By following the work rather than tidying it all up with a neat but deceitful retrospective evaluation, they record the true messiness of building social contracts between citizens and states: the ups and downs, the almost-giving-up-and-then-winning, the crucial roles of individuals, the importance of scandals and serendipity.</div></div></div> Wed, 11 Sep 2013 17:31:00 +0000 Duncan Green 6464 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Strengthening the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act in India to Foster Participation, Access and Accountability https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/strengthening-mahatma-gandhi-national-rural-employment-guarantee-act-india-foster-participation <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> <img alt="" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/Johanna/2347596681_75046ec317.jpg" style="float:left; height:188px; width:280px" />The initiation and countrywide implementation of the <a href="https://nrega.nic.in/netnrega/home.aspx" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act </a>(MGNREGA) represents a milestone in social policy and employment creation with its right based approach and focus on livelihood security. The flagship program has benefitted millions of marginalized rural households by providing them unskilled work and led to prevention of stress migration from rural areas in lean agricultural seasons. A <a href="https://carnegieendowment.org" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">UNDP/Carnegie Endowment for Peace</a> study points out that from the scheme’s first year of operation in 2006-2007 till 2010-2011, job creation accelerated from less than 1 billion workdays distributed amongst 20 million households to 2.5 billion workdays for 50 million households.<br />  <br /> In the above context, the 2013 performance audit conducted by the <a href="https://www.cag.gov.in/" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Comptroller and Auditor General of India </a>(CAG) should be a timely opportunity to analyze the immense management and convergence challenges that a program of MGNREGA’s size poses. This is especially relevant in view of CAG’s observation that undertaking of non permissible works, non completion of works and lack of creation of durable assets during the period 2007-2012 indicated that the poorest were not able to fully exercise their rights under the program. <br /><br /> One of the ‘bottom up’ features’ of the program is its reliance on rural local self government structures i.e. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchayati_raj" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Panchayati Raj Institutions</a> (PRIs) to reinvigorate community driven participation and decision making in service delivery.  The first key institutional challenge, therefore, is to make MGNREGA’S program implementation effective by enforcing PRI ‘activity mapping’ (unbundling subjects into smaller units of work and assigning these units to different levels of government) that was set in motion after the historic <a href="https://hrdd.accountabilityroundtable.org/content/73rd-constitutional-amendment-act-1992-and-74th-constitutional-amendment-act-1993" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">73rd Constitutional Amendment, 1993</a>.  Herein, the Central Government and the States of the Union, have to jointly actualize the principle of subsidiarity- what can be best done at lower levels of government should not be centralized at higher levels. Empowering PRIs especially Gram Panchayats (last mile units in villages) with funds, functions and functionaries (3F’s) is a critical incentive to build their institutional capacity for service delivery. This, in turn, would provide them the teeth to carry out their core responsibilities under MGNREGA such as planning of works, registration of beneficiaries, allotting employment, executing works, making timely payments, maintaining records of measurement and muster rolls.</p> </div></div></div> Tue, 16 Jul 2013 14:39:00 +0000 Abhilaksh Likhi 6401 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere Now Operational: Groundbreaking Social Accountability Fund https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/now-operational-groundbreaking-social-accountability-fund <div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><P><IMG height=160 alt="" src="https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere/files/publicsphere/Johanna/cso_banner2_new3med.jpg" width=520 align=middle></P> <P>After an extensive consultation process and over a year of planning, the <A href="https://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/CSO/0,,contentMDK:23017716~pagePK:220503~piPK:220476~theSitePK:228717,00.html" target=_blank>Global Partnership on Social Accountability (GPSA)</A> is getting off the ground with the first call for proposals just announced on February 11, 2013. With its transparent policies, inclusive governance structure, and strategic thematic focus on social accountability, the GPSA clearly represents a milestone in Bank – civil society relations. After 30 years of engaging civil society through policy dialogue, consultation, and funding, the establishment of GPSA is a clear signal that the Bank intends to institutionalize and scale-up its support to CSOs.</P> <P>The idea for the GPSA emerged from <A href="https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/speech/2011/04/06/middle-east-north-africa-new-social-contract-development" target=_blank>a speech</A> former Bank President Zoellick made at the Peterson Institute in April 2011 in the wake of the Arab Spring, in which he spoke of the need for a new social contract between citizens and governments.&nbsp; He indicated that the Bank would explore with its shareholders means to support CSOs working on social accountability.&nbsp; This was followed by an extensive multi-stakeholder consultation process conducted on the design and scope of the proposed fund.&nbsp; From January through March 2012, more than 870 stakeholders from 57 different countries participated in 25 face-to-face meetings and video conferences organized across the world. In addition, nearly 300 persons submitted written comments online directly onto the GPSA website.&nbsp; As a result, several CSO recommendations were incorporated into the design of the GPSA such as the need to support core and longer term funding of CSOs, and ensure that CSOs had adequate representation on its governing body.</div></div></div> Tue, 12 Feb 2013 16:23:27 +0000 John Garrison 6242 at https://blogs.worldbank.org/publicsphere