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News Articles & Media Mentions

We regularly gather news articles and other media mentions of governance and anti-corruption issues. Whilst we hope this is a useful reference for you, the World Bank is not responsible for the views expressed in non-World Bank publications/articles. Nor is the World Bank specifically endorsing one publication over another. Furthermore, not all of the articles below are available for download due to copyright restrictions. If you would like a full copy of articles that are not available for download on our website, please contact the respective news sources.

News articles and media mentions in other languages are also available:
English Archives: 2004-current | 1999-2003 | 1994-1998


2006 | 2005 | 2004 |

The Payola Game
The New Yorker, United States, 17 April 2006

"Bribing, it turns out, doesn’t always speed things up: in a vast study of twenty-four hundred companies in fifty-eight countries, Daniel Kaufmann, of the World Bank, and Shang-Jin Wei, of the I.M.F., found that the more a company had to bribe, the more time it spent tied up in negotiations with bureaucrats. Graft also encourages government officials to keep complicated procedures in place, since that insures that the bribes keep coming. So corruption isn’t just a product of bad institutions and policies; it also helps cause them."

Stagnation marks anti-corruption fight
International Herald Tribune, 13 April 2006

"'There has been no global improvement on average,' Daniel Kaufman, the director of global programs at the World Bank Institute in Washington, said by phone. 'It is quite sobering. The average quality of governance worldwide has remained stagnant.'"

Can Simpson Miller eliminate corruption?
Jamaica-Gleaner, Jamaica, 09 April 2006

"Many scholars have posited various definitions of corruption, but Daniel Kaufmann narrowly defines it as "the abuse of public office for private gain." Some examples of corrupt behaviour include bribery, extortion, fraud, embezzlement, nepotism, cronyism, influence peddling and an appropriation of public assets and properties for private use."

Economic resilience in small states
The Sunday Times, Malta, 02 April 2006

"The Economics Department and the Islands and Small States Institute of the University, together with the Commonwealth Secretariat will be organising an international workshop on "Constructing an Index of Economic Resilience" with a focus on small states. The workshop will be held at the University Gozo Centre, between April 10 and 12.

High-profile experts participating in the seminar include Eliawony J. Kisanga, director of the Economic Division of the Commonwealth Secretariat, Beris Gwynn, director of the Foundation for Development Corporation, Australia, Daniel Kaufmann, director of Global Governance of the World Bank Institute, and Mary Pat Silveira, chief of the UN Division for Sustainable Development."

A false perception of Africa
Business in Africa, 07 March 2006

"A recent report by Dr. Daniel Kaufmann, Director of Global Programmes for the World Bank, found that firms in developing countries ranked corruption as the number one constraint to business, followed by bureaucracy, policy instability and financing. The report goes on to say that a country could improve its position on the Global Competitive Index by 30 ranks (out of 105) if it could reduce the extent of corruption by 1 standard deviation."

More don't than do pay bribes when overseas
The Sydney Morning Herald, Australia, 6 February 2006
(similarly found in The Age, Australia)

"If you have been discussing the AWB affair with your friends and colleagues, you will probably have heard the line that AWB was doing what everyone does in countries like Iraq and just had the misfortune to be noticed. ... The argument goes that it is impossible to get business done in large parts of the world without paying kickbacks to officials and it is also often argued that companies such as AWB come under particular pressure to pay up, because they come from rich countries, and because they are outsiders. ... World Bank staff members Joel Hellman and Daniel Kaufmann teamed with a Massachusetts Institute of Technology academic, Geraint Jones, in 2002 to dissect the results. As with previous studies, the trio found that the payment of kickbacks in return for deals in such countries is common - but far from universal. And nothing in the survey results supported a claim that western firms come under extraordinary pressure. The evidence does suggest that they are more inclined to pay kickbacks than domestic firms in the same countries."

Good News, Prime Minister, We're Still Ranked Above Bangladesh
OfficialWire, New York, 1 February 2006

"When in July 2005 the Group of Eight countries announced their decision to double aid and debt relief to Africa, they pontificated to the rest of the world about the importance of reducing corruption. Even a glancing peek at the hard data suggests they might have accomplished more by lecturing each other.... The chapter on 'Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption' of the World Economic Forum's 'Global Competitiveness Report 2005-2006' concludes it is a big mistake to believe that the governments of developing nations alone set 'the rules of the game'. To the contrary, Daniel Kaufmann, Director of Global Programs at the World Bank Institute, points out, powerful private interests use their wealth to exert undue influence in shaping public policy. In extreme cases they achieve complete control of state institutions."

Soludo to Address World Economic Forum
This Day, Lagos, 12 January 2006
(similarly found in the Vanguard Media Limited, Nigeria)

"The Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Prof. Charles Soludo has been invited to address world's political and business leaders at the Annual Meetings of the World Economic Forum... Soludo is billed to speak on "Purse Strings and Democracy", along side such international figures as Vaira Vike-Freiberga, President of Latvia; Daron Acemoglu, Professor of Economics Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; Youssuf Boutros-Ghali, Finance Minister of Egypt; Dani Rodrik, Professor, FK Kennedy School of Government, Havard University, among others on January 25... On the following day, he will discuss Global Business Competitiveness in a panel which will include Jean-Francois Cope, Minister Delegate for Budget and State Reform, spokesman for the Government of France; Daniel Kaufmann, Director, World Bank Institute Washington, D.C., Kenneth Rogoff, Professor of Public Policy and Economics, Havard University, Xavier Sala-i-Martin, Professor of Economics, Columbia University, USA; and Mark B. Fuller, Chairman/CEO Monitor Group USA."

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Relative Corruption
The Wall Street Journal, New York, 9 December 2005

Don't let the headline confuse you. We are not referring to the relationship between U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan and his enterprising son, Kojo. Instead, we refer to the latest strategy from that famous economist and other-people's-money philanthropist, Jeffrey Sachs...The contradiction between a pledge to increase aid to poor countries and a promise to cut off corrupt governments was immediately obvious, even to Mr. Sachs. Most of Africa would be automatically disqualified under any system that screens for corruption, as both the World Bank's governance indicators and Transparency International's annual index demonstrate.

Transparency and Accountability Newsletter
USAID's Anti-Corruption Newsletter, Volume 1 Issue 3, December 2005

World Bank Identifies Governance Indicators for 209 Countries, reports Transparency and Accountability. "In a recently released report, Daniel Kaufmann, Director of Global Governance at the World Bank Institute, and Aart Kraay, Lead Economist in the Bank’s Research Group, provide an expanded and updated set of worldwide governance indicators, which cover 209 countries between 1996 and 2004." Other articles are on TI Corruption Perception Index and on issues around governance in Latin American countries.

Arab MPs meet to draft handbook against corruption, by B. Izzak & Agencies
Kuwait Times, Kuwait, 01 December 2005
(similarly found in the Khaleej Times, United Arab Emirates; The Daily Telegraph, Australia; The Irish Independent, Ireland; and, The Dow Jones International Newswire, USA)

Lawmakers from 10 Arab nations and World Bank experts opened a two-day meeting yesterday with the aim to draw up a strategy for fighting corruption that has been on the rise in the Arab world...Executive Director of GOPAC Martin Ulrich and senior World Bank experts are attending the meeting. About 30 current and former MPs from Arab world are also attending. Daniel Kaufmann, director of global programmes and governance at the World Bank Institute, said in a report on the organisation's website that bribery was only part of the problem. A "comprehensive estimate of worldwide corruption would exceed the estimate of bribery alone," Kaufmann said.

The Boat and the Water, by Qinglian He
Epoch Times International, Taiwan News Weekly, 28 November 2005

The Golden Key to the Chinese Market - Why do foreign companies have to pay bribes to Chinese government officials to do business in China? This is entirely attributable to China's peculiar political landscape during this period of transformation. Cheryl W. Gray and Daniel Kaufmann have identified five objectives that multinational companies operating in Russia, Brazil and China accomplish through bribing government officials...

Corrupt perception?, by Asher Meir
(The Jerusalem Post, 25 November 2005)

A survey presented this week at the Sderot conference indicates that the majority of Israelis think corruption here is getting worse. The majority are in good company: two prestigious international indices - the Corruption Index of Transparency International and the Governance Index of the World Bank - also claim that government in Israel is going downhill...Right now I am convinced that the decline is a statistical artifact due to the addition of components to the indices. For example, the World Bank's six governance indicators are made up of dozens of components, and since 1996 over 20 new surveys have been conducted! My impression is that the new surveys are simply less Israel-friendly than the old ones. This doesn't mean they are less accurate; it could be that our current, lower ranking is more accurate than our more favorable 1996 standing.

Why governance matters, by Maricar Paz M. Garde
Manila Bulletin, Intramuros, Manila, 31 October 2005

Economists recognize the crucial role of good governance in economic growth. The literature reveals that significant improvements in governance can triple a country’s income per capita in the long run and decrease mortality and illiteracy. Countries with good governance encourage their citizens to participate in productive rather than diversionary activities (bribery, thievery, piracy). Large increases in productivity, in turn, lead to high growth rates... Since 1996 the World Bank has provided measures of governance for countries worldwide. The aggregate governance indicators are updated every other year by economists Daniel Kaufmann, Art Kraay, and Massimo Mastruzzi through their paper entitled "Governance Matters".

Upping the Ante Against Corruption, by Oke Epia
The Financial Times Limited, Asia Africa Intelligence Wire (AAIW),
Abuja, Nigeria, 16 October 2005
(full text can be found at This Day)

Notwithstanding what critics and skeptics of the anti-corruption crusade of the President Olusegun OBASANJO administration say, the onslaught is getting intensified by the day...nay-sayers may have their point, but what cannot objectively be denied is that the war on corruption is picking up steam daily... Last Thursday in Abuja, Daniel Kaufmann, Director, Governance and Anti-Corruption of the World Bank Institute (WBI), reinforced this position when he gave credit to the Obasanjo administration for its efforts against corruption. "Nigeria is changing for the better, in fact, if the current momentum is maintained and deepened, the progress made in the fight against corruption could become irreversible," Kaufmann said while meeting members of the economic team of the Federal Government.

Foreign Firms Aid Corruption, by Kunle Aderinokun
The Financial Times Limited, Asia Africa Intelligence Wire (AAIW),
Abuja, Nigeria, 14 October 2005
(full text can be found at

The World Bank yesterday said multinational companies from the European and latin American countries were still giving bribes to officials in Nigeria and several other African countries where they operate... Also, the bank said the war against corruption by President Olusegun Obasanjo's administration was paying off and predicted that 2006 could be a historical year... Kaufmann said it was evident that the "resolute reforms" embarked upon by the administration in the past one year and a half was beginning to pay off... According to him, "it is becoming evident that the resolute reforms undertaken by the Nigerian leadership and government over the past a year and a half are beginning to pay off already, even though we know that there is always some delays in any measure."

Nigeria winning corruption war
News24, South Africa, 14 October 2005

Nigeria's government under President Olusegun Obasanjo is making progress in fighting corruption, a senior World Bank official said on Thursday... Daniel Kaufmann, head of global programmes at the World Bank Institute (WBI), made his remarks after a meeting with members of Obasanjo's economic team..."Nigeria is changing for the better. In fact, if the current momentum is maintained and deepened, the progress made in the fight against corruption could become irreversible," Kaufmann said.

Jordan Meeting Told Media Essential for Global Development
Red Nova, BBC Monitoring Media, UK, 13 October 2005

Over 400 media experts from more than 100 countries gathered in Amman, Jordan, on 1-3 October, to explore the relationship between independent media and economic and political development. Participants at the conference discussed the role of communications and media in conflict prevention, reconstruction, and national and international emergencies... Among the key speakers... Daniel Kaufmann, director of Global Programmes at the World Bank Institute, who spoke on the lessons from a decade's work developing and measuring governance worldwide. He also assisted the conference's workshops to quantitatively measure the role of the independent media sector in economic development.

WEF ignores Lebanon while assessing investment climates worldwide
The Daily Star, Lebanon, 8 October 2005

BEIRUT: This...was one of the many observations that Chilean director of Global Programs at the World Bank (WB) Daniel Kaufmann made on Friday during his lecture on governance and corruption at the American University of Beirut...Quoting research in a recent article found on the WB Web site Kaufmann suggested that corruption "is equivalent to a major tax on foreign investors." ...He added levels of governance have nothing to do with levels of wealth. "Botswana and Slovenia are doing pretty well while not being part of the high-income countries," said Kaufmann. While Zimbabwe is on the verge of total collapse, Chile for example showed impressive records in governance levels....Furthermore, Kaufmann insisted that it is good governance that can create income and "not vice versa." Pointing out the common myths about corruption, the WB director said it was measurable.

RP competitiveness drops anew by VG Cabuag
Malaya - The National Newspaper, Philippines, 1 October 2005

The Philippines dropped a notch to 77th place in the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report...On governance and corruption, Daniel Kaufmann said it was a myth that governance and anti-corruption are synonymous. "Corruption is not limited to those who govern, but implicates the private sector as well" ..."To those who say that governance and corruption cannot be measured, the variety and scale of impressive and comprehensive measures, have become available, and are in wide use for monitoring performance," he added.

Commentary: Myths About Governance And Corruption
World Bank News & Broadcast, 30 September 2005

In a commentary published in the Business Recorder ( Pakistan ), Daniel Kaufmann, Director of Global Programs at the World Bank Institute, writes that governance is now being given a higher priority in development circles. A few donors and International Financial Institutions (IFIs) have begun to work with some emerging economies to help reduce corruption, and encourage citizen voice, gender equality, and accountability. Kaufmann discusses if good governance and controlling corruption are really so fundamental for development.

Media Experts from 100 Countries to Gather to Discuss Media Development
Internews, Amman, Jordan, 27 September 2005

An estimated 400 media experts from 100 countries are gathering in Amman, Jordan October 1 – 3 to explore the relationship between independent media and economic and political development...Daniel Kaufmann, Director of Global Programs at the World Bank Institute, will present lessons from a decade’s work developing and measuring governance worldwide; Kaufmann will be leading efforts at the conference to help quantitatively measure the role of the independent media sector in economic development.

China’s rise need not bring conflict by Martin Wolf
The Financial Times, UK, 14 September 2005

(Subscription required for full access)

Ours is the second era of economic globalisation... Today, China's standard of living is still about one-quarter of South Korea's. Yet suppose that China were to attain South Korea's gross domestic product per head... Then its economy would be almost twice as large as that of the US... Even so, China is still far from possessing a law-governed, market economy...The World Bank's comprehensive governance indicators flesh out this...

[Also, the governance indicator charts for China and other comparator countries are prominently displayed in this full feature page article.]

For access to any chart on governance indicators visit WBI's Governance Indicators website.

New models point the way out of poverty by Robert Davies and Kemal Dervis
The Financial Times, UK, 13 September 2005

(Subscription required for full access)

A series of fortuitous politics and events has placed an unprecedented focus on the fight against global poverty and the progress being made towards achieving the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals...Good governance, good domestic policies and partnerships with a wide range of stakeholders are also increasingly being recognised as vital for development success...Governments also need to take a tough stance against corruption and other forms of rent seeking. A recent World Bank study reveals that corruption is seen by business as one of the most severe obstacles in developing countries.

Korean Gov't Drops in World Bank Ranking
The Chosun Ilbo, Korea, 06 September 2005

World Bank "governance indicators"...gave the Korean government an average 3.66 points out of 15 in six categories, including political stability and regulatory quality, placing it 60th out of 209 surveyed nations. In 2002, during the Kim Dae-jung administration, the country recorded 4.07, coming 50th...The World Bank has evaluated the competitiveness of 209 states and autonomous governments every two years since 1996.

Where a Cuddle With Your Baby Requires a Bribe by Celia Dugger
Front Page, The New York Times, 30 August 2005
(similarly found in the International Herald Tribune, Chicago Tribune, Edmonton Journal, and Folha de Sao Paulo)

Such petty bribery acts as a hidden regressive tax, according to research financed by the World Bank Institute, the bank's educational and research arm. In Zambia, for example, poor people paid 17 percent of their incomes in bribes for medical care, while the middle class paid only 3 percent. The comparable figures for Paraguay were 7 percent for the poor and only 1 percent for the middle class.

"The poor not only are paying much more of their incomes to get the same medical services as the middle and richer classes, but they are also discouraged from seeking basic medical care because they can't afford it," said Daniel Kaufmann, director of global programs at the institute.

Governance without borders by Asher Meir
The Jerusalem Post, 5 August 2005
(full text can be found at Ethics@Work)

It never rains but it pours. This week a number of very important economic-ethics stories surfaced, including the continuing saga of Clubmarket and new figures on income distribution.

But I want to give priority to the recent story on the deterioration of the level of governance in Israel. A number of papers carried the story this week because of an announcement by Israeli firm BDI which analyzed the figures, but the figures are actually part of an annual report by the World Bank which came out a few months ago. The World Bank governance figures are well- respected and I have often used them in teaching courses.

Bank indicators rank government quality
Oxford Analytica, 21 June 2005

The latest version of the World Bank's indicators of governance provides new data sources and an expanded timeframe. Although the indicators are based on perceptions-based survey data, the methodology allows explicit estimates of margins of error. The results provide a reminder of the distance separating quality of governance in the OECD and the rest of the world.

Brazilians expect heads to roll in bribe scandal by Andrew Hay
Reuters News, Brasilia, Brazil, 11 June 2005

President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva vowed to ax ministers if necessary to fight government graft allegations but his inaction has Brazilians wondering if he has lost control of a damaging scandal...Accusations of bribery in state companies and the ruling party have sparked Lula's worst political crisis, but not a single high-ranking government official has been fired or suspended nearly a month after the first allegations surfaced...Worried financial markets fell for most of the week...Finance Minister Antonio Palocci, one of the ministers accused of knowing of the scheme, said on Friday scandals had not hit the economy but created a "a climate of concern..."

For Daniel Kaufmann, who works on anti-corruption issues at the World Bank, the government's response to the scandals would decide how markets react..."Today's globalized markets are unforgiving if a country slips in governance and control of corruption," said Kaufmann on the sidelines of an anti-corruption conference in Brasilia.

A Regime Changes
From The Economist print edition, UK, 2 June 2005

The World Bank's new president is famous for his commitment to "regime change". The Bank is committed to a peaceful version of the same thing

The Bank which Mr Wolfowitz now heads has as many sides as the Pentagon he has left. Speaking on May 31st he said he would be willing to listen and experiment, but it will take him some time to get to grips with a complex organisation…Mr Wolfowitz may, in fact, discover much that is familiar to him at the Bank. It is first and foremost a formidable technocracy. But in its own bloodless idiom, the Bank now talks increasingly about politics, even if it does so in euphemisms such as “good governance”, “capacity building”, “voice” and “empowerment”. It is committed to understanding the political institutions of the countries in which it operates…Dani Kaufmann, at the World Bank, notes an explosion of indicators of good government, most based on business surveys or expert perceptions, that offer measures of accountability, bureaucratic competence, the rule of law, and so on…Mr Kaufmann believes he and his colleagues can demonstrate a strong causal link between his indices of sound government and prosperity.

Remarks By E. Anthony Wayne, Assistant Secretary of State For Economic and Business Affairs at the Broader Middle East and North Africa Trade and Development Finance Conference: Part II Federal News Service, Moscow, Russia, 18 May 2005
(Subscription required for full access)

This is an ideal moment to gather for this kind of discussion, because the momentum for change is critical, and yet many challenges remain. The World Bank's latest governance report shows the overall governance environment has deteriorated across the BMENA region between 2000 and 2004 -- including business and regulatory reform, public accountability and control of corruption.

Financial Express: Governance Gripes
Financial Express, Mumbai, India, 17 May 2005

At a time when most of us are in despair at the abysmal state of governance in the country, the World Bank finding that this has improved in India continuously since 1996 brings some much-needed cheer. We score much higher on rule of law, citizens' voice and state accountability. On the other hand, we score fairly low on matters such as the ability of government to frame and implement policies and on the 'regulatory quality' of those on various, especially business-related, matters.

Antibribery efforts fail to stop executives from greasing palms
The International Herald Tribune, Neuilly Cedex, France, 17 May 2005

Daniel Kaufmann of the World Bank, a veteran dispenser of third world loans to government officials who are frequently on the take, estimates that illegal "transactions" cost the world economy about $1 trillion a year. The bank publishes a blacklist of corrupt companies, now numbering 281.

Shaking Hands, Greasing Palms
The New York Times, 17 May 2005
(Subscription required for full access)

Daniel Kaufmann of the World Bank, a veteran dispenser of third world loans, estimates that illegal transactions cost the world economy some $1 trillion a year. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which was enacted to attack accounting fraud, like off-the-books bribes, is a new weapon in the anti-corruption battle.

S'pore fares well in global survey of govts
Singapore Straits Times, 11 May 2005

The report, which is based overall on 37 sources of data provided by 31 organisations, does not, however, draw conclusions or comment on the countries and territories surveyed.

Room for improvement on governance
South China Morning Post, 11 May 2005

Hong Kong 's score for "accountability" was markedly lower than for the other indicators. The emphasis placed by the study on public participation in politics and democratic elections explains why. But the score has improved since 2002, perhaps because of the public's increased political awareness and activism.

Philippine scores on governance go down
Philippine Daily Enquirer, 11 May 2005

The Philippines is bracketed with a group of mostly developing countries that have experienced large changes in governance scores during the past eight years from 1996 to 2004. A World Bank study released on Monday shows that the quality of governance in the Philippines has deteriorated from 1996 to 2004.

Martin Wolf: Russia needs help to be 'normal'
The Financial Times, UK, 10 May 2005

Vladimir Putin's recent remark that the dissolution of the Soviet Union was "the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the century" reminds us that Russia is not just another country in transition from the communist past....Yet Russia will only be a normal country when its people welcome their freedom rather than regret their power... The recent governance indicators from the World Bank show...Russia now resides between Venezuela and Egypt on voice and accountability....On all the World Bank's indicators of governance - accountability, stability and lack of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law and control of corruption...Russia is not a "normal" middle-income developing country.

World Bank Releases New Governance Indicators, 10 May 2005

In spite of improvements in some countries, there have been at least as many countries where deterioration has taken place in many dimensions of governance, and many more where no significant change is apparent yet. Thus, on average the quality of governance around the world has remained stagnant, highlighting the urgent need for more determined progress in this area in order to accelerate poverty reduction.

World Bank gives Denmark top ratings
Xinhua News Agency, 10 May 2005

The rankings make Denmark and the other Nordic countries appearas a shining example for the rest of the world, according to Daniel Kaufmann, who was in charge of the World Bank investigation. "To create the Nordic countries' system of excellent public administration requires a long process, and one has to be realistic. But our study shows that in just five to six years, good results can be achieved," Kaufmann said.

SA Earns 'Less Stable' Rank in Bank Study
Business Day - South Africa, 10 May 2005

While the bank said that some of its more than 350 data sources on more than 209 countries were based on perceptions, they constituted important sources of information. The bank did not rank countries for the study, saying the margin of error could be too large.

S'pore slips, but still high in political governance
Business Times - Singapore, 10 May 2005
Available on page seven of the Pacific Star, Singapore in PDF, 786 kb)

The political governance ratings of Singapore have slipped somewhat over the past decade or so, according to a World Bank study. But few among the 209 countries covered in the research have made good progress, and Singapore probably remains among the top ten for good governance.

Quality of governance has stagnated - World Bank
Agencia Internacional de Noticias, 10 May 2005

Daniel Kaufmann, director of governance at the World Bank Institute and co-author of the report, said the study showed that good governance was not a luxury that only wealthy countries could afford. Emerging countries like Botswana, Chile, Slovenia and Baltic nations had also shown high quality of governance.

WB: Quality of RP governance is poor
The Manila Times, 10 May 2005

Government reformers, citizens, domestic enterprises and foreign investors see governance as the key ingredient for sustainable development and a sound investment climate.

World Bank: Good governance key to growth
Washington Times, 9 May 2005

The report said domestic as well as foreign investments flow more freely when a steady, reliable government is in place.

World Bank Indicators Measure Good Governance
Voice of America, Washington, DC, 9 May 2005

At stake is the fundamental issue of socio-economic development and poverty alleviation first and foremost. One of the findings that we have and others have very similar findings is what we called the ‘development dividend’ of good governance, which on average we have found it to be 300 percent. A country that has today $2,000 per capita income per year can attain $6,000 per capita income per year in the long term if it improves its rule of law, control corruption and government effectiveness.

World Bank Says Corruption Hurts World Economies
Voice of America, Washington, DC, 9 May 2005

The bank's anti-corruption director, Daniel Kaufmann, says that corruption can be found everywhere, but the countries deemed the least corrupt, led by the five Nordic states and New Zealand, have several traits in common. These include a high regard for human rights, political stability, an effective, accountable government bureaucracy, market-friendly policies, and a strong rule of law.

World Bank Says Openness Aids Investment
InterPress Service News Agency, Washington, DC, 9 May 2005

''In spite of a number of shining examples, the fact is that, on average, neither the rich nor the poor worlds have improved in their standards on governance over the past eight years,'' said Daniel Kaufmann, report co-author and director of global governance at the World Bank Institute, the lending agency's think tank. ''This sobering reality ought to motivate collective action in the next stage.'

Iraq 'facing corruption threat'
BBC News, UK, 16 March 2005

"The diversion of funds from publicly financed projects represents an unacceptable tax on the poor," said World Bank president James Wolfensohn. "In the construction sector, it represents a deplorable opportunity lost for the delivery of essential services and it undermines citizen trust in government."

World Bank Hails Transparency International's Annual Report
World Bank Press Release, 16 March 2005
World Bank President James D. Wolfensohn today hailed Transparency International’s 2005 report as another important and practical contribution in curbing corruption. "TI has once again shown its ability to combine research and policy analysis not just to shine a light on the deeply embedded problems of corruption in the international construction industry, but to propose progressive solutions to safeguard public monies and public trust," said Wolfensohn.

TI welcomes World Bank report detailing corruption investigations Transparency International, Berlin, Germany, 24 February 2005
The World Bank’s Annual Report on investigations into fraud and corruption allegations sets an example for other development banks and international institutions including the UN to follow, says Transparency International.

World Bank Warns Corruption Could Destroy Cambodian Economy Voice of America, , 11 February 2005
"The World Bank called on Cambodia this week to drastically curb corruption, or face isolation from the world's free trade markets. World Bank President James Wolfensohn says the three greatest obstacles to Cambodia's growth are corruption, corruption, corruption."

Lenders Mull Cambodia's Economic Future, Phnom Penh, 10 February 2005
" The World Bank and International Monetary Fund blame corruption and a lack of law enforcement for a reduction in investor confidence here."

Kenya, funding and corruption
Khaleej Times Online, 10 February 2005
"According to World Bank, widespread corruption can cause the growth rate of a country to be one half to one percentage point lower than that of a similar country with less corruption."

Training to improve municipal governance
The East African, Nairobi, Kenya, 1 February 2005
"The World Bank Institute and the Municipal Development Programme for Eastern and Southern Africa (MDP-ESA) have launched a programme to improve governance in municipalities in Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda."

Corruption besets Kenya business
BBC News, UK, 25 January 2005
"Companies in Kenya say corruption is still the biggest obstacle to doing business in the country, according to a new survey involving the World Bank."

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Corruption (Part 1 of 3): Who Pays the Price?
Voice of America Press Releases and Documents, Washington, DC, 17 December 2004
Experts who analyze corruption say there is no way to eliminate the greed that is behind many criminal acts. But, there are effective strategies to fight corruption in countries big and small, and rich and poor.
One strategy is to openly discuss the problem. The first of three instlaments on corruption by Voice of America begins with an assessment of the global reach of corruption and who pays the price.

Corruption (Part 2 of 3): What Can be Done to Fight It?
Voice of America Press Releases and Documents, Washington, DC, 17 December 2004
"At the World Bank one new idea is to 'name and shame' companies that don't play by the rules. "It is no secret that we have made mistakes in the past and some World Bank funded projects have been tainted," said Mr. Kaufmann. "There is a much tougher approach now". "The World Bank sponsors an anonymous phone line to take tips. Then it bans companies found guilty of wrongdoing and posts their name of the Web." "Mr. Kaufmann adds that fighting corruption is not just a job for governments or the World Bank. It's up to every exporter, business owner, judge, and citizen to build a world of integrity"

Corruption (Part 3 of 3): What is the Media's Role?
Voice of America Press Releases and Documents, Washington, DC, 17 December 2004

There is an old saying that, 'Sunshine is the best disinfectant.' But shedding light in the dark corners of business and government can be dangerous work. Yet that's what investigative journalists do to keep the public informed. In this final instalment of the "Corruption" series, Paul Miller has a look at the role that the media plays in exposing corruption and the risks that reporters take.

No Country is Corruption-Free, Says World Bank by Kunle Aderinokun All Africa, Lagos, 13 December 2004

"A statement by the Director of Global Governance at the World Bank Institute, Mr. Daniel Kaufmann, noted that, "there is no such thing as zero corruption, even in countries that rate at the highest levels in terms of ethics and the control of corruption...Kaufmann, who made the comment in a radio interview with Corporate Communication as the Bank Group to mark the first anniversary of the signing of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, said the standard definition of the phenomenon, "the abuse of public office for private gain", was too narrow and does not include more subtle and complex forms of corruption"

WB estimates global annual bribes at US$ 1 trillion
ITAR-TASS, 8 December 2004
"Kaufmann said corruption does not only include bribery, but also such "legal" forms, as influence-peddling, pressure from vested interests, and so-called "state-capture" by elite corporations influencing a country's policy ad legal environment. Kaufmann said decreasing corruption and increasing transparency results in an "enormous payoff" for countries. The positive effects increase in GDP per capita and a decline in infant mortality"

A Leading Expert Discusses Ways to Combat Corruption in Several Countries

The Irish, Poles and Czechs slip down index of corruption
Financial Times, UK, 20 October 2004
"Daniel Kaufmann, director of global governance at the World Bank Institute, the bank's think-tank, says the CPI has been important in raising awareness of corruption but there is still room for improvement in the index's accuracy, such as through relying on up-to-date information from a broader set of sources, which would make the ratings less imprecise."

Hazards of charting corruption: STATISTICS: A league table of perceived bad governance could unfairly hinder investment into low-ranked countries
Financial Times, UK, 20 October 2004
"Mr Kaufmann, a specialist on measuring levels of corruption and good governance, says that despite TI's keenness to publish its results in league table form, "no international indicator of governance, corruption or the business environment can be used for precisely ranking countries from best to worst."

It Pays for the U.S. to Go to the Bank 
Washington Post, 26 September 2004
"To take the most extreme example, the Treasury spent much of 2001 arguing that the bank was an incompetent public-sector institution with no idea how to measure the effectiveness of its aid; then it launched a new American aid program called the Millennium Challenge Account, which copies many of its effectiveness measures from the work of World Bank researchers."

The High Cost of Corruption: A Scourge That Afflicts Rich and Poor
by Zenit News Agency, 5 August 2004

Toronto, Ontario, 1 August 2004

"Contrary to common perception, corruption is rampant not only in developing but also in developed countries, with more than one trillion dollars being paid in bribes each year across the globe, according to the World Bank."

Grease Trade
The Wall Street Journal, Europe, 28 July 2004
Daniel Kaufmann, governance director at the World Bank Institute, has put a figure on annual bribery world-wide at $1 trillion. If he is right, $400 billion may indeed be an underestimated.

Combating Corruption in the Multilateral Development Banks - Testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Kimberly Ann Elliott for the Center for Global Development and Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC, 21 July 2004

Anti-corruption added to international corporate governance pact Associated Press, 25 June 2004
"The new anti-corruption platform targets, among other things, extortion and bribery. According to World Bank estimates, there were some US$1 trillion in bribes alone in 2003 in developed and developing countries."

How deep is corruption in Africa?
BBC News, UK, 23 June 2004
"In Nigeria, the international oil giant Shell admitted that it inadvertently fed conflict, poverty and corruption through its oil activities in the country."

New techniques help expose corruption
Oxford Analytica, 14 May 2004
These surveys generally find very high rates of bribery, particularly in the developing world. One recent World Bank study, using data generated by cross-country surveys, reported that a lower bound on the value of bribes paid worldwide is one trillion dollars.

Testimony before the Subcommittee on Trade of the House Committee on Ways and Means at the Hearing on Trade with sub-Saharan Africa and H.R. 4103, the AGOA [African Growth and Opportunity Act] Acceleration Act of 2004
Stephen Hayes, President of the Corporate Council on Africa, Washington DC, 29 April 2004
"...With strong incentives for positive change, AGOA recognizes what recent studies are proving: real economic growth cannot occur without good governance, including the rule of law. Daniel Kaufman and others at the World Bank have proven this correlation. However, they have also found that this is not a virtuous cycle: growth does not necessarily lead to good governance. Thus we cannot simply invest in and trade with Africa and assume that governance will naturally improve as economies grow..."

Corruption Costs the World USD 1000 bn a year 
in SIFY, UK, 15 April 2004, and also in Deccan Herald
"The menace of corruption costs the world, including both rich and developing countries, a whopping 1000 billion dollars a year, a World Bank Institute study has said."

More than $1 trillion dollars is Paid in Bribes Each Year 
LiquidAfrica, 12 April 2004
"More than $1 trillion dollars (US$1,000 billion) is paid in bribes each year, according to ongoing research at the World Bank Institute (WBI)."

$2.7bn in Bribes Change Hands Daily, Says World Bank
This Day [Nigeria], 12 April 2004
"The World Bank on Thursday released a major report that says that more than $1 trillion is paid globally as bribe yearly."

World Bank Homepage Anti-Corruption Feature
(the following were all part of an April 2004 special on this topic)

World Economic Forum, Davos - 2004
Session: Turning Good Governance into Great Performance

Dr. Rice Previews President's Trip to Mexico 
White House Press Briefing, 9 January 2004

Dr. Rice: On fighting corruption - which, by the way, I think it's the World Bank that has called corruption a tax on economic growth, and therefore, a tax on the poor...."

Anti Corruption is Signed into Treaty
World Bank Internal Communications, 7 January 2004
"On December 11, 2003, more than 90 countries signed a landmark treaty: the UN Convention on Anti-Corruption. WBI’s Director of Global Governance Daniel Kaufmann made an opening plenary..."

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