- “Europe 4.0: Addressing the Digital Dilemma” by Mary Hallward-Dremeier
- “Impact of COVID-19 and Europe Digital Agenda” by Leonardo Iacovone
- “Europe 4.0: Addressing the Digital Dilemma - Applying the framework in Turkey”
Europe faces a digital dilemma. New digital technologies can help Europe become more competitive. However, while some of these new technologies create or expand access to markets for smaller firms and in lagging regions, others can create challenges for the European convergence machine if they concentrate economic activity in large firms and leading regions.
This discussion focused on how Europe can meet its "triple objective" to improve competitiveness while fostering market inclusion for smaller firms and economic convergence for citizens and regions, and the relevance of some of the approaches for other countries in Europe and Central Asia.