What policy recommendations does the report provide?
Myanmar’s Urbanization: Creating Opportunities for All provides an inclusive urbanization framework that includes three key dimensions; economic, social and spatial. The three dimensions of inclusion are highly interlinked, and any approach to understand the complexity of issues or develop solutions must consider all three.
For example, challenges in accessing income earning opportunities may be linked to macro level problems in the economy and structural problems in the labor market, but also may be linked to where people live and the possibilities for affordable transport to jobs and markets, limited basic infrastructure for home-based work, and/or exclusionary policies or social practices for some groups that are discriminatory. In the case of urban areas in Myanmar, marginalized groups are identified as the urban poor, migrants, non-Bamar ethnic groups, religious minorities, women and the disabled, who face exclusion from jobs, housing, and infrastructure and social services for various reasons.
The framework of economic, spatial and social inclusion used in the report points to several priority policy recommendations, outlined in the table below including indication of short, medium and longer-term prioritization. Many of the recommendations come back to the need for:
- investments in sustainable urban infrastructure and in-situ community based urban upgrading to provide basic services for all, ensure mobility for the flow of people, goods and services;
- building resilience to mitigate the impact of shocks on people’s livelihoods and health;
- reforms to policies to facilitate access to legal documentation for migrants and specific subgroups, and targeted social programs for those that are particularly vulnerable to exclusion and may not be able to benefit from urban opportunities; and
- capacity building and new financing for urban development
Taking these recommendations forward will require additional work to identify champions, key stakeholders, find relevant entry points for private sector investment, and ensure a stable governance framework aligned with sufficient technical capacity and financing for implementation. These are challenges that the World Bank and other development partners can support in partnership with the Government of Myanmar.