Indigenous Peoples are culturally distinct societies and communities; the land on which they live and the natural resources on which they depend are inextricably linked to their identities, cultures and economies.
There are approximately 300 million Indigenous Peoples worldwide. Although they make up roughly 4.5 percent of the global population, they account for about 10 percent of the poor.
Indigenous Peoples safeguard within their traditional territories about 80 percent of the planet’s biodiversity, yet they legally own less than 11 percent of these lands.
Improving their situation will require both widespread and sustainable economic growth as well as strategies to address multiple sources of disadvantage, taking into account their views and special needs of development.
The World Bank is working actively and globally with Indigenous Peoples on a number of issues directly affecting them.
The World Bank is continuing to deepen its understanding of Indigenous Peoples issues and needs at the country and regional levels through analytical studies that will improve the design and implementation of projects and programs that involve Indigenous Peoples and through direct dialogue with indigenous leaders and their representative Indigenous Peoples Organizations.
The Bank participates each year in a number of international Indigenous Peoples’ fora, including the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) in New York. In building wider alliances with the international indigenous community, the Bank collaborates with various IPOs in developing countries
The Bank is committed to both strengthening country capacity to enhance effective engagement with Indigenous Peoples as well as to build the capacity of Indigenous Peoples organizations. This support includes a dedicated grant mechanism for Indigenous Peoples and local communities by the Forest Investment Program (FIP), a Capacity Building Program for Forest-Dependent Indigenous Peoples by the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF), and global, regional, and local consultations in the context of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). Selected through the UNPFII, Indigenous Peoples are also observers to the Climate Investment Funds (CIF).
Through its work, the World Bank seeks to position excluded groups, such as Indigenous Peoples, at the center of the development agenda. This includes:
Strengthening the policy and institutional frameworks affecting Indigenous Peoples and their relations with other members of society;
Supporting Indigenous Peoples’ capacity for self-development, based upon their own views and priorities, including cultural heritage and knowledge;
Demonstrating the important role that Indigenous Peoples can play in the management of fragile ecosystems and biodiversity conservation; and in economic development, and;
Disseminating experience and lessons learned from such indigenous development initiatives to national governments and the international donor community.
Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change
Indigenous Peoples are disproportionally vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, given that they often live in environmentally sensitive areas (e.g., the Arctic region, tropical forests, mountains, deserts, etc.); and frequently depend primarily on surrounding biodiversity for subsistence as well as cultural survival. As a result, Indigenous Peoples hold traditional knowledge that may be critical to climate change adaptation. The Bank aims to build on Indigenous Peoples’ knowledge when assisting countries in developing strategies to adapt to changing environmental patterns and conditions.
This is particularly relevant in the case ofthe REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus) agenda, where Indigenous Peoples are key stakeholders given their close relationships with and dependence on forested lands and resources.
Global Dialogue with Indigenous Peoples
In 2012, the World Bank began a process to update and consolidate the Bank’s environmental and social safeguard policies, in an effort to better address new development demands and challenges. Part of the ongoing review is a Global Dialogue and Engagement process with Indigenous Peoples that aims to include Indigenous Peoples in the ongoing World Bank Environmental and Social Safeguards Review and Update process and to strengthen World Bank support to and engagement with Indigenous Peoples worldwide.
Both consultation phases of the safeguards review included a number of dedicated Indigenous Peoples Dialogue sessions that have yielded excellent results in terms of participation, information gathered and the beginning of a renewed and stronger relationship with Indigenous Peoples. The Dialogue is ongoing.
In July 2014, the Committee on Development Effectiveness (CODE) of the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors provided clearance to the Bank to consult publicly on the draft, including on Environmental and Social Standard (ESS) 7 for Indigenous Peoples that introduces the principles of Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC). The second phase of consultations with stakeholders concluded on March 1.
The World Bank consulted widely with governments, private sector, and civil society, including Indigenous Peoples. The safeguards team is now revising the draft Environmental and Social Framework and will present an updated proposal to the Committee on Development Effectiveness in the summer of 2015.
To deepen the understanding of Indigenous Peoples issues at the country and regional levels, the Bank launched an internal community of practice in July 2014, the Global Group on Indigenous Peoples, to enhance innovative solutions and knowledge sharing to support Bank operations for Indigenous Peoples’ sustainable development.
Some examples of World Bank projects that have yielded positive, tangible results for Indigenous Peoples include:
Through the Nicaragua—Land Administration Project, property registry times and transaction costs were reduced. The policy and legal framework for land administration was strengthened through the preparation of a National Land Policy Framework and the passing of three fundamentally important laws, one of which allowed the poor and marginalized indigenous communities in the Caribbean region to receive collective titles to 15 ancestral territories comprising over 22,000 square kilometers (almost 19 percent of the national territory).
The Central America—Integrated Ecosystem Management in Indigenous Communities Project amply surpassed its target of 100 participating communities and organizations to reach 350 indigenous communities participating in conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. Capacity building was provided to more than 4,000 indigenous peoples and 357 organizations. The communities and institutions learned to combine traditional knowledge with integrated ecosystem management, and this knowledge was used to prepare land-use plans. Some 379 communities prepared 23 integrated ecosystem management land-use plans based on their strengthened capacity. In addition, the project provided assistance to 472 communities and 69 community-based organizations to support the introduction and implementation of productive conservation-compatible subprojects.
As part of the Vietnam Third Rural Transport Project, women --many of them from ethnic minorities-- receive training on basic road maintenance skills and earn additional income from their work maintaining the rural roads that also connect them to markets and schools.
As a result of the Vietnam Second Northern Mountains Poverty Reduction Project, the rural poor and ethnic minorities of the poorest and most disadvantaged areas in northwest Vietnam improved their access to markets and services through the paving and upgrading of more than 4,230 kilometers of rural roads and the construction of 3,250 kilometers of small bridges. Water flow to irrigation schemes was improved to more than 9,000 hectares of farmland, reducing the number of months of hunger for the poor. Over 8,600 households now access improved water quality.
Since 2003, the World Bank has been supporting Roma inclusion in Eastern Europe through promoting knowledge and data generation; providing capacity building and policy advisory; and mainstreaming Roma inclusion in country operations.