In recent years, World Bank support for CDD has increasingly focused on creating national platforms to enhance service delivery and address poverty. Many programs that began as small, stand-alone operations have gradually expanded to encompass much larger (often national) coverage that have become part of formal decentralization strategies.
Afghanistan: Since its launch in 2003, the National Solidarity Program (NSP) – the government’s principal community development program – has mobilized almost $2.05 billion in donor and government funding. The program worked through more than 35,000 community-elected Community Development Councils (CDCs) in all 34 provinces of the country to finance over 88,000 community-level infrastructure schemes in the areas of water supply and sanitation, rural roads, irrigation, power, health, and education.
From 2003 to 2016, the NSP helped construct or rehabilitate almost 53,600 kilometers of roads; provide access to improved water sources to more than 11.7 million people by constructing approximately 86,300 improved community water points; generate 32 megawatts of power; irrigate more than 524,000 hectares of land; and build almost 2,000 classrooms. These sub-projects have generated over 52 million days of paid short-term employment for the Afghan people.
In 2015, the NSP responded to the government’s launch of the “Jobs for Peace” initiative by providing a “Maintenance Cash Grants scheme” for the maintenance of community infrastructure. Operational in 45 districts in 12 provinces, the scheme is meant to quickly disburse funds directly to rural communities to generate short-term employment. As of July 2016, a total of 1.9 million labor days have been generated. With an additional financing of $57 million, the grants scheme is expected to expand to all provinces and create over 11 million paid labor days that will directly benefit over 440,000 households.
Benin: The $76 million Decentralized Community Driven Services Project (PSDCC) aims to support the government of Benin’s decentralization policy by helping local governments to work with poor communities to improve basic service delivery. Under the project, about 1,000 communities have signed or will sign contracts with local governments to carry out low-complexity infrastructure sub-projects in education, health, water, commerce (public markets and agricultural storage), and rural roads.
The project supports grassroots management training, and includes a community-driven safety nets pilot in 125 poor communities. The pilot uses community-based targeting of the poorest to deliver cash transfers and provide an opportunity to participate in labor-intensive public works to about 13,000 beneficiaries. To date, the project has reached more than 163,000 beneficiaries and created over 368,400 days of employment through its labor-intensive public works sub-projects.
Bolivia: The $40 million Community Investment in Rural Areas Project has an overall goal to fight extreme rural poverty among small landholders, particularly indigenous populations. Starting in late 2011, the project has since transferred responsibility and resources to more than 140,000 rural inhabitants in 656 highly vulnerable communities (30% beyond the target of 500 communities), and supported 735 sub-project to improve access to basic and productive infrastructure for rural households.
To date, the project has increased road access for more than 14,000 people, and expanded or improved irrigation for more than 16,000 beneficiaries. In 2015, the government received a $60 million additional financing credit to expand and deepen the success of the project to reach an additional 200,000 beneficiaries.
Morocco: The National Initiative for Human Development (INDH) was launched in 2005 to improve the living conditions of poor and vulnerable groups through enhanced economic opportunities, better access to basic and social services, and improved governance. Phase 2 of INDH (2011-2015) expanded the target population and geographic scope, from 667 to 1,234 communities, and almost doubled resource allocation from $1.2 billion to $2.1 billion over five years. During the period 2005 to 2015, approximately 44,600 community-driven sub-projects were financed, providing more than 10 million beneficiaries with access to basic social and economic infrastructure services and training.
The impact evaluation of the first phase of INDH showed a 20% increase in revenues for participating rural households, and 10% increase for urban households, a reduction in child mortality from 6.2 to 0.9 deaths per 1,000 births, and a decrease in malnutrition from 14.4% of the population to 4.3%.
The Bank supported the second phase of INDH through the first Program-for-Results operation; a third phase of INDH has been planned for the period 2016-2020, thanks to strong political support and high-level financial mobilization.
The Philippines: The Philippines National Community-Driven Development Program aims to empower communities to achieve improved access to services and participate in more inclusive local planning, budgeting, and implementation. The program, valued at more than $1.1 billion, including financing from the Asian Development Bank, covers all of the country’s poorest municipalities, which include approximately 25% of the national population.
Started in 2014, the program supports investments that respond to community-identified priorities – such as roads, bridges, schools, or day care centers. To date, the program has reached about 5.3 million beneficiaries and completed almost 7,000 community sub-projects, with approximately 7,500 additional sub-projects in the pipeline. Of particular note, the program is being used to help respond to the widespread destruction caused by Super-typhoon Haiyan.
The program builds on the success of the KALAHI-CIDSS project (2003-2014) in the Philippines, which had contributed to improved household access to municipal centers, increased access to safe drinking water, greater participation in local level government activities, and increased trust within and outside of communities, according to a robust impact evaluation.
CDD has also proven useful in responding to conflict and fragility, and in post-disaster contexts, as it has shown to be fast, flexible, and effective at re-establishing basic services. In fragile and conflict-affected states (FCS), the approach has also helped rebuild social capital and trust within communities, and between communities and governments. CDD has been used in several FCS countries in the Africa region (for example, Cote d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, and South Sudan), as well as in Afghanistan and Myanmar.
Last Updated: Sep 21, 2016