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Indonesia: Better Education through Reformed Management and Universal Teacher Upgrading

April 24, 2014


In 2005, Indonesia implemented the teacher law to improve the quality of its teachers. Under the new law, teachers must obtain certification by completing a 4-year college degree and continue to improve their skills. A program is supporting the government to implement the teacher quality management reform as mandated by the Teacher Law

World Bank Group

The Bank-supported program to improve teacher quality has produced solid results between 2007 and 2013. Over 1.7 million teachers now have 4-year college degrees, as mandated by the Teacher Law, exceeding the target of 1.4 million teachers. More than 210,000 teachers are also taking part in professional working groups, hence strengthening their pedagogic skills. A teacher professional management system --to ensure that teachers continuously learning, improve their competencies, and perform their professional tasks-- was also established.

Challenge

In December 2005, the Government of Indonesia passed the Teacher Law in order to provide teachers more opportunities for skills training through a certification process, as well as mandating them to have 4-year university degrees, hence potentially improving the quality of basic education.  Some 65 percent of teachers did not have 4-year college degrees. Once certified and teaching at least 24 hours a week, a teacher receives an allowance equal to 100 percent of their base salary, so that teachers no longer need to supplement their incomes with non-teaching work.  Implementing the law through a decentralized education system and ensuring that Indonesia’s 2.7 million teachers were improving their skills, however, proved a big challenge

Solution

The Better Education through Reformed Management and Universal Teacher Upgrading (BERMUTU) program sought to support the Ministry of Education and Culture in implementing the Teacher Law.  A framework was prepared to ensure that in-service teachers can upgrade their academic qualifications, and improve their knowledge of their teaching subjects as well as their teaching skills. A system was also established to manage the teachers’ professional development.  The Bank supported primary school teacher training programs and the programs’ efforts to reach out to teachers in remote and rural areas.  School principals and supervisors in participating districts were trained to provide training at the school level.  Throughout, an integrated framework was prepared in order to sustain and continually enhance the quality and accountability of teachers after certification, and to foster and reward ongoing improvements in teacher quality.

Results

The program has seen significant results between 2007 and 2013:

  • Support in increased number of teachers meeting academic qualifications mandated by the Teacher Law. Over 1.7 million (out of 2.74 million) teachers had acquired the mandated 4-year college degree.
  • From a base of zero, 81 primary-teacher education pre-service programs have received Bachelors’ Degree accreditation.
  • Recognition by accredited universities of Recognition for Prior Learning (RPL), a system that acknowledges knowledge and skills acquired through work and through classroom practice. More than 870,000 teachers have received the RPL.
  • Support of 13 teacher training institutions and the Open University, which allows teachers to upgrade their education through distance learning. 
  • Provision of new teacher induction programs; so far, some 1400 teachers have participated in this program. 
  • Support for the development of the Teacher Performance Management System, which includes Performance Appraisal, Teacher Competency Test, and Continuous Professional Development. 
  • Support for research on the impact evaluation of teacher certification on teacher and student performance, entitled Teacher Reform in Indonesia - The Role of Politics and Evidence in Policy Making.
  • Reactivation and support of 6,107 professional working groups of school teachers, principals and supervisors at the local level.  When the Teacher Professional Management system is operational, these groups will be the main agency to deliver continuous professional development activities.


" I rarely had learning opportunities before 2009. There were only two training opportunities a year for very few participants. Now I have many learning chances, including regular peer meetings in teacher working groups that provide better teaching preparation and methods. My students are now more actively engaged in class, even for mathematics "

Caca Sumiarsa

Teacher

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A teacher with his students in an elementary school classroom in Tulungagung, East Java.

The World Bank

Bank Group Contribution

From 2007 and ending in 2013, the project cost US$195.06 million. The Bank contributed US$ 24.50 million with an International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan, and US$ 61.50 International Development Association (IDA) credit. The rest of the funds were provided by the Government of Indonesia and the Government of Kingdom of the Netherlands.

 

Partners

The Government of the Netherlands provided US$ 52 million to co-finance the project.  In 2007, the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Basic Education Project (BEP) undertook capacity assessment of in-service teacher training centers (P4TK) and quality assurance institutes (LPMPs).  BERMUTU complemented these projects, ensuring efficiencies and avoiding duplication. 

 

Moving Forward

The reforms prompted by the Teacher Law mean that reforms will work through the system long after this project closes. Forty out of 75 BERMUTU participating districts have established local government regulations which reflect their commitment to improving teacher performance management and accountability, including the continuous professional development (CPD) through teacher working groups. The Ministry of Education and Culture is establishing a task force to ensure that the project sustains and is expanded to the remaining 445 districts in Indonesia.

 

Beneficiaries

After nearly 30 years of teaching, Caca Sumiarsa finally earned his university degree in 2013 and received certification as a teacher, thanks to the Bermutu program. Sumiarsa found the program’s teacher working groups particularly helpful. “I rarely had learning opportunities before 2009. There were only two training opportunities a year for very few participants. Now I have many learning chances, including regular peer meetings in teacher working groups that provide better teaching preparation and methods. My students are now more actively engaged in class, even for mathematics.”

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1.7 million
(out of 2.74 million) teachers had acquired the mandated 4-year college degree


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