East Asia and Pacific remains the world’s growth engine despite a challenging external environment, with developing economies growing by 7.2% in 2013. The proportion of people living in poverty in the region has steadily declined—less than 10% of the population lives on $1.25 a day—but much more needs to be done as there are still close to half a billion people living on $2 a day.
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ContextFor billions around the world—especially the world’s poorest—healthy oceans mean jobs, food and protection. FAO estimates that fisheries and aquaculture assure the livelihoods of 10-12 percent ... Show More +of the world’s population with more than 90 percent of those employed by capture fisheries working in small-scale operations in developing countries. Oceans are equally important for food security and jobs. In 2012, fisheries produced roughly 160 million tons of fish and generated over US$129 billion in exports while securing access to nutrition for billions of people and accounting for 16 percent of total global animal protein. Coastal areas within 100 kilometers of the ocean account for an estimated 61 percent of the world’s total Gross National Product (GNP) and are of particular importance for developing countries; in 54 coastal and island countries up to two thirds of total national territory is ocean. Overall, healthy oceans, coasts and freshwater ecosystems are crucial for economic growth and food production in developing countries.A healthy ocean is also fundamental to the global effort to mitigate climate change and its impacts. “Blue carbon” sinks such as mangroves and other vegetated ocean habitats sequester 25 percent of the extra CO2 from fossil fuels and protect coastal communities from floods and storms. In turn, warming oceans and atmospheric carbon are causing ocean acidification that threatens the balance and productivity of the ocean.Ocean resources have a vast potential to unlock growth and wealth but human activity has taken a toll on ocean health. Fish stocks have deteriorated due to overfishing—the FAO estimates that approximately 57 percent of fish stocks are fully exploited and another 30 percent are over-exploited, depleted or recovering. Fish stocks are further exploited by illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, responsible for roughly 11 to 26 million tons of fish catches or US$10-22 billion in unlawful or undocumented revenue. In fact, poor fisheries management costs roughly US$50 billion annually and US$2 trillion in the last 30 years in lost economic potential. Fish habitats are also under pressure from pollution, coastal development, and destructive fishing practices that undermine fish population rehabilitation efforts.Proper management of fisheries, investment in sustainable aquaculture and protection of key habitats can restore the productivity of the ocean and return benefits to billions of people in developing countries while ensuring future growth, food security and jobs for coastal communities.StrategyWorld Bank investment unlocks the wealth from ocean resources that sustainably contributes to growth and returns long-term benefits to communities and countries. The World Bank Group helps countries promote strong governance of marine and coastal resources to improve the contribution to sustainable and inclusive growth by supporting sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, establishing coastal and marine protected areas, reducing pollution, integrating coastal resource management and developing knowledge and capacity around ocean health. The World Bank’s active ‘blue growth’ portfolio is worth US$6.4 billion. The Bank provides some $1 billion in financing for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, and for efforts to conserve and enhance coastal and ocean habitats. The Bank’s engagement in fisheries and aquaculture is also supported by the Global Program on Fisheries (PROFISH), which aims to improve the environmental, social, and economic sustainability of world’s fisheries and aquaculture. The Bank also provides some $5.4 billion for coastal infrastructure such as waste treatment, watershed management and other activities that help reduce coastal pollution.Active projects include support for Pacific island region, West Africa and South West Indian Ocean fisheries management, as well as a partnership to build governance for migratory fish stocks in areas beyond and between national jurisdiction.The Bank also contributes to knowledge around oceans and fisheries with publications such as Fish to 2030: Prospects for Fisheries and Aquaculture; The Sunken Billions: The Economic Justification for Fisheries Reform and more. In 2014, the World Bank released the Trade in Fishing Services Report, which discusses best practices for foreign fishing arrangements that benefit developing nations.The Bank convenes partners and stakeholders to mobilize ocean investment, advocate for positive reforms and ensure that healthy oceans remain on the global development agenda. It works through partnerships including the Global Program on Fisheries, the Alliance for Responsible Fisheries, the Strategic Partnership for Fisheries in Africa and the Ocean Partnerships for Sustainable Fisheries and Biodiversity Conservation.ResultsIn Indonesia, where two-thirds of coral reefs are considered threatened by overfishing, the Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Project (COREMAP), has benefited 358 village communities by establishing marine protected areas and reducing illegal and destructive fishing. This work has increased communities’ income in COREMAP areas by 21 percent since 2008.The Coastal and Biodiversity Management Project in Guinea-Bissau helped the country establish national parks and protected areas network, protecting 480,000 hectares of the country’s coastal zone. In four of the five established protected areas, the effectiveness of park management increased by at least 15 percent from 2005 to 2010.The West Africa Regional Fisheries Program covers eight countries: Cabo Verde, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mauritania, Senegal and Sierra Leone. The program aims to increase the economic contribution of marine resources through strengthened fisheries governance, reduced illegal fishing, and increased local value added to fish products. In Liberia, the government passed comprehensive fisheries regulations in December 2010 and inaugurated the first fisheries monitoring center. Since that time, the incidence of illegal fishing has been reduced by 83 percent and fishing communities report higher catches. In Sierra Leone, the Government has brought over 14 industrial vessels to port for illegal fishing and increased public revenues from the fisheries sector from US$0.9 million in 2008 to US$3.8 million in 2013. The introduction of community-led fisheries management in Senegal has been successful in restoring resource; some communities have reported a 133% increase in catch efficiency.India: The Integrated Coastal Zone Management in India (FY07– FY15) finances national- and state-level capacity building, land use planning, and pilot investments in pollution management, resource conservation, and livelihood improvements. So far, more than 6,000 hectares of mangroves have been planted and 11 new coastal areas have been declared ecologically sensitive. Work has begun to stop the flow of more than 100 million liters of untreated sewage per day into the ocean and protect over 150 km of shoreline. Show Less -
WASHINGTON, March 31, 2015 - The World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors today approved the following project:China - Gansu Rural-Urban Integration Project IBRD Loan: US $150.0 million equivalentTer... Show More +ms: Maturity = 25 years, Grace = 5 yearsProject ID: P132775Project Description: The objective of the project is to fund the construction and rehabilitation of rural roads and bridges to improve rural-urban connectivity in Wuwei Municipality and Linxia Prefecture. For more information, please visit here: http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P132775?lang=en Show Less -
WASHINGTON, March 31, 2015 - The World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors today approved the following project:China - Yunnan Highway Asset Management ProjectIBRD Loan: US $150.0 million equivalentTe... Show More +rms: Maturity = 30 years, Grace = 5 yearsProject ID: P132621Project Description: The objective of the project is to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of highway asset management in Yunnan.For more information, please visit here: http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P132621/yunnan-highway-asset-management-project?lang=en Show Less -
WASHINGTON, March 31, 2015 — Hundreds of thousands of people in Western China will benefit from better rural roads and highway management with $300 million in loans approved t... Show More +oday by the World Bank Group’s Board of Executive Directors.The loans will finance two projects, at $150 million each, in Gansu and Yunnan provinces. The first one, the Gansu Rural-Urban Integration Project, will build and repair rural roads and bridges connecting 48 villages and benefit 168,000 people, many living below the national poverty line.“The project will make it faster and safer for villagers to travel or transport goods to cities, and thus help reduce the rural-urban poverty gap,” said Holly Krambeck, the World Bank’s Senior Transport Specialist and task team leader for this project. Gansu is the second poorest province in China, with 40 percent of its rural population living below the national poverty line. Economic development is hampered by a lack of all-weather transport infrastructure connecting the province’s towns and villages. Only 43 percent of the province’s villages have paved rural roads. Wuwei Municipality and Linxia County were selected for the project because of their large rural population, low incomes and poor transport infrastructure. The second project, the Yunnan Highway Asset Management Project, will fund the administration and maintenance of highways in Yunnan, and help the government develop an integrated highway asset management approach, which is relatively new in China, based on international best practices. Highway asset management refers to a strategic approach that identifies the optimal allocation of resources for managing, operating and maintaining highways and other related infrastructure.“The project will take a comprehensive approach to improve the Yunnan Highway Bureau’s asset management capacity, including data collection, planning and budgeting, program delivery, and performance evaluation and monitoring,” said XiaokeZhai, the World Bank’s Senior Transport Specialist and task team leader for this project.The project is timely, considering the challenges the Yunnan Highway Bureau faces amid a rapid expansion of highways. The agency, for example, doesn’t have an asset management system, an integral database or a road network monitoring and emergency command system. Emergency response and maintenance stations have limited equipment and some of it is in poor condition. Staff needs more on-the-job training in skills and new technologies to meet growing maintenance demands. “China has made tremendous efforts in investing in the expansion of its transport infrastructure. In the next phase, it will have to shift attention to maintaining those assets,” said Bert Hofman, World Bank Country Director for China. Show Less -