East Asia and Pacific remains the world’s growth engine despite a challenging external environment, with developing economies growing by 7.2% in 2013. The proportion of people living in poverty in the region has steadily declined—less than 10% of the population lives on $1.25 a day—but much more needs to be done as there are still close to half a billion people living on $2 a day.
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The paper compiles preliminary
information about programs providing day-care for infants,
and toddlers in resource-poor settings in developing
countries, namely thr... Show More +ough case studies in Bolivia, Chile,
Colombia, Guatemala, Peru, the Philippines, and Venezuela.
Highlights of findings include crucial issues, such as the
involvement of parents in their children's care, parent
education, and community action in providing children with a
sense of familiarity, and security. The paper identified
that caretaker to child ratios range from 4.1 to 12.1,
specifying that while the higher ratios reduce costs, they
also reduce the possibilities for adult-child interactions
which are so important for young children's
development. Most importantly, the paper underlines the
crucial role of psychological early childhood development,
focused in all programs under discussion. It emphasizes on
the adult-child interaction, respectful peer interaction
among children, and, warmth of touch and movement.
Discipline policies also accent the positive: affection, and
fostering children's self-esteem. Moreover, most
programs acknowledge that cognitive development in the early
years, evolves with social, and physical interaction, i.e.,
the need for comforting familiarity, and challenging
stimulation. Overall, it is suggested that caregivers'
careful planning, can create a variety of environments for
young children, even in cramped quarters with limited resources. Show Less -