The analysis of recent micro-level evidence for India (Ghani, E., Kerr, W. R., & O'Connell, S. D., 2012) shows that agglomeration economies, infrastructure access and strong business networks generate significant productivity and efficiency gains for women-owned enterprises. The findings have important policy implications. This presentation highlights the economic channels through which women's economic activity in the formal and informal sectors are enabled and impeded. The presentation also examines the institutional reforms that are required and the need for improving connectivity and infrastructure to encourage increased female economic opportunities, recognizing that a combination of solutions are required and one-size does not fit all.
The discussants highlight: the constraints faced by women entrepreneurs in Sub-Saharan Africa; the impediments women entrepreneurs face in accessing financing to grow their businesses and invest in non-traditional sectors; and the legal and regulatory reforms that are essential to create a level playing field for entrepreneurs in developing countries.
Jeni Klugman, Sector Director, PRMGE, World Bank Group
Ejaz Ghani, Lead Economist, PRMED, World Bank Group
Matthew Gamser, Head, SME Finance Forum, World Bank Group
Mary Hallward-Dreimeier, Lead Economist, DECFP, World Bank Group
Margo Thomas, Lead PSD Specialist, CICTI, World Bank Group
For more information: IFC Investment Climate Resources