A founding member of the World Bank, the United Kingdom supports multilateral efforts to promote human and economic development, reduce poverty, and boost shared prosperity around the world.
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ULAANBAATAR, August 21, 2014. The World Bank has appointed James Anderson as its new Country Representative for Mongolia. Mr. Anderson has formally taken the position on August 18th and will begin wor... Show More +k in Ulaanbaatar next week.Mr. James Anderson is a U.S. national and a PhD in Economics. He brings with him broad experience, having worked with the World Bank since 1997. Before joining the World Bank Mongolia, he served as the Senior Government Specialist in Hanoi, Vietnam. From 1998 to 2008, he was a public sector specialist in the European and Central Asia Region of the World Bank. During the 1990s spent some years working in Mongolia as part of a USAID project and consulting for the World Bank, organizing training on institutional reform and conducting research on the effects of privatization and on Mongolia’s burgeoning informal sector. Mr. Anderson will soon begin making courtesy calls with government officials, including the with the Minister of Economic Development and Minister of Finance.“Mr. James Anderson will lead the World Bank’s engagement in Mongolia, working in partnership with the government and other stakeholders to support Mongolia’s development, leveraging its resources to help reduce poverty and ensure that Mongolia’s prosperity is widely shared among the population,” said the Country Director for Mongolia, China and Korea Mr. Klaus Rohland.Under Mr. Anderson’s leadership, the World Bank Mongolia will continue to support the Mongolian government’s efforts on a broad range of development issues and closely work with development partners, the private sector, and civil society. Show Less -
“Addressing the spatial inequalities in the country, reflected in the townships, is essential to improving the lives of people,” said Asad Alam, World Bank Group country director for South Africa. “We... Show More + hope this study will help promote evidence based analysis and policy making on this important matter.” The study focuses on economic activity in T&IS using specially commissioned household and business surveys conducted in Diepsloot, and suggests interventions townships and informal settlements need to be embedded in a holistic, integrated national economic and urban strategy. It further finds that national interventions need to be complemented by local interventions to create jobs and improve service delivery.Under apartheid, black people were forced to live in the dormitory-style townships that were built as far away as possible from economic city centers. Post-apartheid development policies led to the construction of townships filled with government housing and limited access to some social services. However, these townships were often built as far, if not farther, than the original apartheid townships. Over the same period, there has been a massive growth of informal settlements. Diepsloot shares many economic characteristics of South African townships such as joblessness, uneven access to basic public services, and overwhelming levels of crime and violence but in some respect it is atypical – newer, poorer, more informal and has a bigger proportion of foreign migrants.With a population of nearly 200,000, half of whom live in shacks, Diepsloot, which is wedged between two metropolitan areas of Johannesburg and Pretoria, is struggling to gain a viable economic foothold in the urban mainstream even though it is closer to city centers than many other T&IS; the report notes that it is still only partially integrated into the economic and social fabric of the cities. Reasons include the disproportionate constraints faced by the poor because of lack of education, high transport and other job search costs and the limited scope for job creation via self-employment. The report also reports crime, access to space and to electricity to be the top three frequently cited constraints to starting own businesses and creating self-employment options.Interviews with Diepsloot’s residents included in the report show a mix of feelings ranging from anger, fear and suspicion to aspiration, hope and longing for opportunities. Despite its challenges, informal businesses are growing, creating a circular flow of income within Diepsloot. According to the report, unleashing this energy by enabling a more viable informal modernizing economy in Diepsloot and elsewhere in large urban townships and then strengthening its linkages with the much richer urban centers may hold the key to the nation’s goal of faster, more inclusive growth. Show Less -
BEIJING, August 20, 2014 – China could consider moving toward integrated early childhood development services for all covering prenatal services to services for 0-3 year olds, 3-6 year olds and even a... Show More +ligning with primary school education, and developing related policies and measures, advises a World Bank report.After achieving nearly universal 9-year basic education, China is increasingly emphasizing policy development and service delivery in early childhood education. A bilingual report titled Challenges and Opportunities: Early Childhood Education in Yunnan, recently published by the World Bank in collaboration with Yunnan Department of Education, has analyzed the key challenges and proposed policy interventions for expanding the coverage and improving the quality of early childhood education particularly in the rural areas.“Globally and scientifically, there is consensus that early childhood development is one of the most effective measures in alleviating poverty as well as in improving economic competitiveness and labor productivity. More and more countries are prioritizing early childhood education on the national development agenda,” said Xiaoyan Liang, World Bank Senior Education Specialist and lead author of the report. “In China, the demand for education is particularly strong. Even though early childhood education is not yet part of the compulsory education, government still has a critical and important role to play in ensuring access to and quality of early childhood education particular for the disadvantaged population,” she added.The report presents findings from five interrelated studies: (i) a survey of existing early childhood development policies and institutions in Yunnan and China; (ii) the financing of preschool education; (iii) a household survey of a representative sample of 3-to 6-year-olds in rural Yunnan; (iv) a survey of preschool quality in Kunming using the internationally recognized Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised for Pre-Schools scale; and (iv) a comprehensive study of preschool teachers covering qualifications, career development, working conditions and salaries, as well as demand and supply.Based on research results and comparison with relevant international trends, the report put forward the following recommendations for improving the access to and quality of preschool education in Yunnan province:Increasing public financing on preschool education, in particular for the disadvantaged. The incorporation of at least one year preschool education into the free public education system, targeted funding for preschool provision in poor, border and minority counties, and a diverse and innovative set of demand-side, private-public partnership financing and delivery mechanisms are potentially effective measures.Expanding service delivery models. Models employing flexible service delivery could be adopted in addition to formal center-based care. Home-based care, parenting education, and communication and media campaigns have been used in other countries to improve access to early childhood services, parental knowledge and practices, and ultimately childhood development outcomes.Improving quality and atmosphere of existing preschools. More sophisticated instruments need to be developed for assessing the quality of preschools, going beyond the traditional focus on physical infrastructure but with much more attention to curriculum, activities, teacher-child interactions, parent and community outreach, and other process indicators.Strengthening family and parental education. Families play an instrumental role in childhood development. Parents can provide more quality stimulation and interaction with their children by talking, reading, and playing with them. Parents’ ability for caregiving can be enhanced through home visits, guidance and support from health providers, and group parental training.Increasing awareness of secondhand smoke’s harmful effects. Given that approximately 90 percent of households in the survey have members smoke in the presence of children, it is crucial to increase public awareness of the negative health impact of secondhand smoking to ensure that children are in a smoke-free environment.Developing a preschool teaching force. The adequate provision of qualified preschool teachers presents the biggest challenge for Yunnan. Preschool teachers as a group have become marginalized from the rest of the teaching force. There is a need to improve preschool teachers’ pedagogical competency, as well as awareness of and sensitivity to childhood development needs. The shortage of qualified preschool teachers is particularly acute in rural and poor counties.Moving towards integrated early childhood development provision for all, including early childhood development for 0-to 3-year-old. Increasingly, global trends move toward more integrated provision of services for young children - bringing together prenatal, health, early stimulation/education, nutrition, and child protection services - often under an umbrella child development agency. In the long term, Yunnan could start developing the early childhood development concept and related policies and institutions, covering prenatal services to services for 0-to 3-year-olds, 3-to 6-years-olds, and even aligning such services with primary school education. Show Less -
2014年8月20日，北京：早期儿童教育与发展须形成一体化服务，涵盖从出生前到0-3岁再到3-6岁直至上小学，世界银行报告建议制定相关政策与措施。中国已基本普及了9年基础教育，近年来政府开始对儿童早期教育的政策制定和财政投入给予更多关注。世行和云南省教育厅合作编写的《云南学前教育：挑战和机遇》报告分析了云南省、尤其农村地区扩大儿童早期教育所面临的主要挑战，提出了相应的政策干预手段。世界银行高级教育... Show More +专家、报告主要作者梁晓燕说：“无论是从扶贫还是从提升经济竞争力和劳动力水平的角度来看，学前教育都是最有效的干预手段之一。现在越来越多的国家开始把学前教育纳入国家和教育发展议程。中国社会和家庭的教育需求十分强烈。虽然学前教育尚未纳入义务教育，但政府在确保早期儿童教育的可及性和质量方面大有可为，尤其是针对弱势群体。”报告从五个方面开展了调研分析：（1）全国及云南现有早期教育政策和制度；（2）学前教育的财政投入；（3）对云南农村地区3-6岁儿童代表性样本的住户调查；（4）按照国际公认标准对昆明学前教育机构质量和环境的调查；（5）幼儿师资的学历、职业发展、薪酬及供需情况综合研究。在调研分析并结合国际学前教育政策趋势的基础上，报告为云南省改善学前教育的可及性和质量提出了七项政策建议。加大学前教育的公共财政投入，尤其是针对弱势群体的投入， 甚至考虑把学前教育纳入免费公共教育体系，为贫、边、少地区的学前教育提供定向资金，采用重视需求方的、公私合作的多元化、创新型融资和服务提供机制。扩大服务提供模式。除了中心式的正规全日制幼儿园模式外，还可以采用其他灵活的早教服务提供模式，如家庭式教育、亲子教育、媒体宣传教育等。可以通过教育家长让家长把课程信息带回家里传授，也可以通过有组织的同伴互动相配合。改善现有幼儿园的质量和氛围。需要开发评估学前教育质量的更完善的工具和手段，超越传统上仅重视硬件等投入，更加重视课程安排、各种活动、师生互动及其他过程指标。加强家庭和家长教育。家庭在早期儿童开发中起着十分重要的作用，家长通过交谈、阅读和玩耍，可以为孩子提供更高质量的刺激和互动。通过保健提供机构的家访、指导和支持以及组织家长集体培训，可以提高家长的养护能力。提高对二手烟危害性的认识。鉴于90％受调查家庭有在儿童面前吸烟的行为，提高公众对二手烟危害健康的认识至关重要。需要扩大宣传教育，确保儿童在无烟环境中成长。加强学前教育师资队伍建设。幼儿教师作为一个群体在教师队伍中日益边缘化，农村贫困地区缺少合格幼儿教师的问题尤为严重。需要提高幼儿教师的教学能力及对早期儿童开发的必要性的意识和敏感度。 推进面向所有儿童、包括0-3岁幼儿的一体化的早期儿童发展。早期儿童发展在云南乃至中国都是一个全新的理念。全球发展趋势日益趋向于为幼儿提供一体化服务，整合产前、健康、早期刺激及教育、营养和儿童保护服务，往往将其置于一个伞状儿童发展机构之下。报告建议云南省着手建立早期儿童发展理念和制定相关政策和制度，涵盖从产前服务到0-3岁、3-6岁及至与小学教育衔接起来。 Show Less -