GDP, current US$ billion
GDP per capita, current US$
Life Expectancy at birth, years
Despite its upper-middle-income status, Turkmenistan is still at an early stage of transition. Indeed, its abundant natural resources have arguably masked the need for a change, delaying first generation reforms such as price and trade liberalization, privatization, and the creation of institutions for market regulation, which began only after 2007.
Tight administrative controls and the public sector’s large overall role in economic activity remain the key obstacles to private sector development in Turkmenistan. The public sector and state-owned monopolies continue to dominate the economy and the formal labor market. Foreign direct investment (FDI) remains limited outside the hydrocarbon sector.
Growth remains highly dependent on hydrocarbons and related sectors. After the successful diversification of natural gas export routes in 2009, China became the largest export market for Turkmenistan. Medium-term plans envisage a further increase in natural gas exports to China and other destinations in East and South Asia, while exports to Russia have come to a halt due to transit pricing disputes.
Exports of natural gas to Iran remain limited. In this context, a planned third pipeline to China and the proposed Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) pipeline, if they materialize, would more than double gas export capacity. Despite the ongoing and planned diversification of markets, Turkmenistan’s exports are increasingly dependent on a single large market (China) and continue to be dominated by a single product (natural gas), making the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in global prices beyond its control.