40 years ago, Singapore was confronted with severe unemployment, poor infrastructure, and a housing shortage. Today, the city-state has taken its place among the newly industrializing countries in Asia.
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57岁的欧玉群是广西壮族自治区桂林市恭城县的一位瑶族农妇。她的三个孩子都已长大成人，去年她迁入新居，生活十分美满。 为她的幸福生活锦上添花的还有她家两年前安装的沼气系统。 如今，她用沼气做饭、照明；厕所粪便进入沼气池；沼气池产生的沼渣沼液还能用来给她在后院种的蔬菜施肥。 “这个沼气系统太让我满意了！”她说。提供新型能源 改善农民健康欧玉群家的沼气系统是在世界银行贷款“生态家园项目”的支持下建起来的... Show More +。“生态家园项目”支持安徽、湖南、广西、湖北四省区和重庆市发展以沼气为纽带、集种养一体化的高效生态家园模式，把沼气建设与改圈、改厕、改厨等基础设施建设结合起来，与种植业、养殖业结合起来，从而改善农户的生活环境和生产条件。自2008年以来，五省市64区县共有超过50万农户受益。恭城县农业局唐福銮局长介绍说，开展沼气工程非常适合当地的条件。 县里的大多数农户都种柿子树、养鸡、鸭和猪；终年温暖湿润的天气也有利于多种植物生长。 烂柿子、野草、人畜粪便都可以进入沼气池作为原料，为农户提供重要的能源，唐局长说。“我做一日三餐用的都是沼气，”欧玉群说。恭城县的另一位村民江良德也谈起沼气给他的生活带来的改变。江良德的三个儿子都已搬到了城里，他的妻子最近也去一个儿子家帮忙照看刚出世的孙子。步入花甲之年的他现在一个人住在江家村。 他种植水稻、柑橘、花生和西瓜，用沼渣沼液作肥料。 一天辛勤的劳作结束后，他打开沼气灶，为自己做一顿热腾腾的饭菜，煮上一壶香喷喷的传统“油茶”。“用沼气的效率高，”他说。“只需要几分钟，茶就煮好了。我们家的沼气池产生的沼气很足，我一个人根本用不完。”得益于“生态家园项目”，江良德家的厕所也得到了翻新改造。“原来我们家的厕所就是一个小棚子，苍蝇乱飞。现在的厕所又现代又干净，苍蝇都不见了，”他说。没用沼气之前，当地农民做饭主要靠捡木柴作燃料。 “我记得那个时候，我要一边养牛，一边捡柴，非常辛苦。每天至少要花2、3个小时在上面，”欧玉群说。“烧柴的时候到处是烟。小孩子被烟熏得直哭。现在有了沼气，我的厨房清洁、无烟，对健康有好处。” Show Less -
Environmental benefitsFor Ou and her fellow villagers, biogas means convenience, less work and less smoke. But the project has even more benefits. “In the bigger picture, it means using less foss... Show More +il fuel and reducing the emission of greenhouse gases,” said Cao Wendao, a senior agricultural specialist with the World Bank. On average, a biogas digester would annually reduce 2.83 tons of CO2 emission. Assuming that in carbon trade, per ton of CO2 emission is priced at RMB79 ($12), biogas unites at the mature stage of the project would displace about 1.55 million tons of greenhouse gases, generating a value of RMB 122.7 million (US$ 20 million) per year, Cao said. Biogas replacing firewood also helps prevent deforestation. And using slurry from the digesters as fertilizer reduces farmers’ use of chemical fertilizers and helps maintain soil quality, according to Tang, the Gongcheng agricultural official. The environmental benefits do not stop there. In Gongcheng, like many rural areas in China, animal farms are a growing industry. But the improper disposal of animal waste poses a big problem: it pollutes waterways and the waste naturally emits methane, a greenhouse gas 23 times more potent than carbon dioxide. So “biogas management companies” were established to solve this problem. “For example, just in our township alone, there are about 50 pig farms. Without treatment, pig waste causes pollution,” said Fan Jiaqiang, who works with a biogas management company. “Our company signed an agreement with pig farms to help dispose the waste which we bring to farmers to feed their biogas digesters. This way, we ensure adequate supply of waste for biogas and also reduce pollution caused by large pig farms,” he said. Show Less -
Work for road upgrade startedLast year, the World Bank approved a credit and loan for $40 million to rehabilitate the entire 110km road corridor spanning the districts of Dili, Aileu and Ainaro. The&n... Show More +bsp;road project will stabilize slope protection, improve drainage, repair pavements, and develop an emergency maintenance and response system to help the government tackle the effects of extreme weather on roads.The first contracts for the road rehabilitation have been awarded to two companies through a competitive international bidding process, and the project has recently been presented to the community. “Building a good quality road will reduce the number of traffic accidents, decrease travel times and the overall costs of maintenance,” said Franz Drees-Gross, World Bank Country Director for Papua New Guinea, Timor-Leste, and the Pacific Islands. “It will ensure the road is passable throughout the year and allow people to benefit from improved access to markets, and better services.”Managing the risks of erosion and improving drainage in the mountainous terrain remains a challenge. To make sure that the roads can withstand rain and flooding, World Bank experts have conducted several studies along the road to ensure that the best possible road will be built to benefit the Timorese people. Show Less -