In recent years Papua New Guinea has experienced important progress in key areas of structural reform. In particular, opening markets in telecommunications and air transport has produced major welfare gains for the population.
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ChallengeIn Port Moresby, the largest city in PNG, youth between the ages of 15 and 29 represent about 35 percent of the population. It is estimated that the youth cohort will grow by at least another... Show More + 13 percent by 2015 due to natural population increases and immigration. The combination of rapid demographic growth and urbanization creates tremendous pressures for employment generation. Three underlying issues pose significant challenges for the youth:i) Their lack of equity in and access to the formal primary and secondary education;ii) Their lack of equity in and access to the labor market; andiii) Their increasing involvement in urban crime and violence.SolutionThe Urban Youth Employment Project aims to provide urban youth in the capital Port Moresby with income from temporary employment opportunities and to increase their employability through:Youth Job Corps supports: i) the identification and selection of disadvantaged, unemployed youth from the National Capital District; ii) life skills for employment training; and iii) public works job placement. Approximately 13,500 of these youths will then undertake a two month work placement on a public works sub-project.Skills Development and Employment Scheme (SDES) provides On-the-Job Training and market oriented work experience for around 4,000 participating youth. The SDES consists of two Pre-Employment Training (PET) programs followed by On-the-Job Training. One of the PET programs provides opportunities for about 2,000 youths and focus on trade, industrial and commerce related employment. The other provides opportunities for another 2,000 youths and focus on basic bookkeeping, data entry, business practices, and information technology.ResultsAs of May 2013, the project has achieved the following:Consultation and awareness activities in 11 locations across the National Capital District have resulted in 3,000 applicants to be screened to participate in the program.Provide training in basic life skills for 1,300 youth.Half of 250 youths who graduated from the pre-employment training in March 2013 have been placed in on-the-job training with public and private employers in the National Capital District.Bank contributionThe International Development Association has contributed $15.80 million for this project.PartnersAdditional co-financing for the project has been provided by the Government of Papua New Guinea in the amount of PGK1 million per year and $0.6 million from the Republic of Korea.Moving forwardThe project started its implementation in January 2011 and is expected to end in April 2016. It is expected that the project will support the government’s broader agenda of promoting income generation opportunities as well as the development of a youth strategy to address the problems of youth unemployment and exclusion. Show Less -
Results Examples of results achieved with International Development Association (IDA) and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) support include:Tanzania: From 1994-2000, ID... Show More +A supported mining sector technical assistance in Tanzania in the areas of mining legislation and regulations, mining fiscal regime, environmental policies and enforcement, divestiture of state-owned enterprises, and strengthening institutional capacity. The foreign direct investment in the mining sector increased to an average of US$250 million per year in 2001-08 from less than US$10 million per year in 1990-99. However, as the fiscal regime was designed to attract investment into a declining, high-risk sector, mining tax revenues were only 4 percent of total fiscal revenues in 2007, and several mining communities were not satisfied with their benefits from the mining operations. Since 2009, IDA has been supporting the government to strengthen its capacity to manage the mineral sector to improve the socioeconomic impacts of mining. In 2010, the government passed a new mining law that increases the rate of royalty paid on minerals from 3 to 4 percent and allows for participation by the government in all future mining projects. Argentina: Mining investment in Argentina was US$56 million in 1995. By 2008, 13 years after an IBRD-supported reform of the mining sector began, it reached US$2.4 billion. Exports had grown by 275 percent to US$4.1 billion. The Bank also worked with sub-national governments because mineral rights are held provincially in Argentina. The programs in each province and the federal government were similar and focused on: (i) revision and modernization of the mining legal and regulatory frameworks; (ii) institutional capacity development; (iii) development and harmonization of modern cadastre and registry systems; (iv) establishment of effective environmental, legal, and regulatory frameworks; and (v) training and institutional strengthening regarding the assessment of socio-economic impacts of mining investments. Madagascar: IDA has supported mining sector reform in Madagascar through a series of technical assistance projects since 1998, with emphasis on attracting investment, improving the sector’s environmental performance, and ensuring that the sector’s benefits are widespread. The reforms fostered a large increase in activity, including the development of large mining operations in ilmenite and nickel/cobalt. Given the country’s widespread poverty, the government undertook a strategy centered on strengthening local governance, decentralizing fiscal revenues, and providing technical assistance to community associations and municipal governments for the integration of mineral resources management in their development plans.Two investment agreements totaling US$5.5 billion were signed in the mining sector in 2005-06. Approximately 12,000 domestic jobs were created during construction of the two mines.The ilmenite mine opened in 2009 and the nickel/cobalt mine opened in 2012 and, according to company reports, is positioned to become the world’s biggest lateritic nickel mine by 2014. Mine forestry committees have been established to assist with biodiversity and land use planning. Both mining companies have provided extensive short-term training and some long-term training for workers that will help provide local communities with a source of income beyond mine closure. Both companies have taken proactive stances in enabling local small and medium enterprises to take advantage of business opportunities arising during construction and exploitation. A multi-use port partially funded by the World Bank (US$32 million, 2006) was built near the ilmenite operation, while the nickel/cobalt operation did a major port upgrade. Both operations provide power to their local areas. An additional objective was to establish a foundation in connection with the ilmenite mine that would provide local communities with a source of income far beyond mine closure.Mongolia: Mongolia is rich in natural resources, principally gold, copper, coal, uranium, and oil. IDA supported sector reform, which began in 1997, resulted in the adoption of a modern mining law that encouraged increased mineral exploration and exploitation. Over the last several years, the mining sector has been a key driver of the country’s GDP growth of 7.8 percent per year from 2000-08. In 2010, Mongolia’s total mineral exports increased to US$2.3 billion, from US$267 million in 2000. While the mining sector accounted for 8.5 percent of GDP in 2000, it increased to 25 percent of GDP in 2010. However, while this was happening, transparency and openness in the sector did become a major concern for policy makers as well as the general public. In order to address these concerns, the mining law of 2006 obliged companies engaged in extractive industries to report their payments to the government. The government launched its Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) process in 2007 with IDA support and has become a fully compliant country. IDA support to Mongolia in the mining sector is now focused on using mining-generated fiscal resources for fostering sustainable development in the regions affected by extractive industry activities. IDA is supporting institution strengthening in Mongolia’s mining sector, particularly regulatory capacity with respect to mining cadastre operations, and the effective management of environmental and social issues. Support is also being provided to create the infrastructure necessary for the development of natural resources. Uganda: Over the period of 2004 to 2011, the World Bank, together with the African Development Bank and the Nordic Development Fund invested approximately US$32 million to strengthen the government's capacity to develop a sound minerals sector based on private investments and improvements in selected artisanal and small-scale mining areas. Over the period of 2004 to 2011, annual investment in mining exploration increased significantly from US$5 million in 2004 to US$47 million, with a total cumulative investment over the period of US$329 million. Exports of cement, gold and cobalt (representing about 95 percent of total exports) also increased during the same period, from US$22 million per year in 2004, peaking to between US$250-350 million in 2008 and then reducing to US$120 million at the end of 2010 as commodity prices relaxed. In part because of increased volume and prices of mineral production, but also due to increased government capacity, total fiscal revenues more than doubled over the life of the project. This increase in revenue was achieved at the same time as the increase in the transparency of mining sector revenues as evidenced by regular publication of such mineral revenues. The project also had a significant impact on the incomes and operating performance of artisanal miners. Incomes of artisanal miners increased 60 percent from US$4.81 per day to US$5.00 – US$7.50 per day for precious metal and industrial mineral miners respectively. Furthermore, by the end of the project the Government of Uganda had received and approved, 590 health and safety plans from artisanal miners, up from zero in 2003. Show Less -
Bank Group ContributionTotal project cost is estimated at US$55.4 million with US$18.1 million financed from counterpart funds.IBRDSupport from IBRD in the equivalent of US$40 million began in August ... Show More +12, 2002. About US$25 million was financed from counterpart funds and about US$5 million from six participating provinces.IDA CreditFinancing from an IDA credit for SDR 24.9M (US$37.3 million equivalent) was approved in 2007, adding the Gulf and Western Provinces to the current six recipient provinces.PartnersThe project was implemented by the Ministry of Works and Transport. The RMRP was designed to cover maintenance and rehabilitation of roads and bridges, both national and provincial, in Central, East New Britain, Manus, Morobe, Oro and West New Britain Provinces. The rehabilitation of roads in other provinces is supported by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) and the Asian Development Bank. The PNG Sustainable Development Program Ltd also provided funds for the government’s contribution towards the project. Show Less -
OverviewThe first Mining Technical Assistance Project in Papua New Guinea contributed to creating an enabling environment for sustainable mining, with a special focus on environmental and social aspec... Show More +ts, and improved mining legislation and institutions. The project also worked to create better and more meaningful relationships with communities and increase mining-related benefits at the local level. One particularly pioneering part of the project was the Women in Mining Initiative, which engaged and empowered women in mining-affected communities.ChallengeSince independence, the mining sector has been vital to the local economy and economic fortunes of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Mining has made substantial contributions to government revenues, against a background of challenging social issues and significant environmental impacts in some mining areas. A persistent problem was that benefits from mining often failed to reach local communities. Where they did, they tended to be captured by men, but the impacts of social disruption and environmental harm fell most heavily on women and children. ApproachWhat made this technical assistance project so successful? The project worked on several different levels, including policy work to strengthen legislation; support for investment, and social development activities through benefit sharing and community participation, particularly through the involvement of women. In this way, the project was able to not only improve the investment environment and help revive exploration, but also translate mining activity into better development outcomes for communities. Establishing a Geographical Information System (GIS) helped encourage exploration and promote investment. New legislation improved policy, strategy, and regulation. Training programs built government capacity in tax collection, auditing and other essential functions. One of the most innovative aspects of the project was its support to the Women in Mining Initiative, a series of activities designed to empower women. This support enabled women in mining-affected communities to participate more equitably in mining benefits, and play a larger part in decision-making. ResultsBy 2006, more than Papua New Guinean Kina 56 million (approximately US$26 million) was collected in new tax revenues.Three new mining developments were approved with a combined value of US$1.2 billion. This activity followed a period of more than five years when no new investments took place. Applications for new exploration licenses increased by more than 80 percent between 2002 and 2005.Communities benefited from local development activities at mining sites. These included:improved consultations as part of the government’s new Sustainable Mining Development policy;training and skills transfer programs;increased availability and use of microcredit and new business startups;improved development planning, with fully participatory regional development plans drawn up for two mining areas; andbetter planning for mine closures.Three international conferences for the Women in Mining Initiative were organized and attended by hundreds of women from mining areas in the country. Six local action plans were integrated in a National Action Plan for Women in Mining Areas (2007-2012), endorsed by the government, and a Women’s Officer was appointed by each of the largest mining companies.The success of the GIS data digitization project was outstanding. The areas where the GIS work was completed on average received five times more applications than the rest of the country.The project supported the establishment of the autonomous Mineral Resources Authority (MRA) to help increase sustainability.A new Mining Safety Act was enacted and implemented and two new Mines Inspectors were appointed. Show Less -
OverviewThe Pacific Islands Countries (PICs), with a combined population of almost 10 million people, are highly exposed to natural disasters. In 2007, the World Bank established the Pacific Catastrop... Show More +he Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI) to develop disaster risk assessments tools and practical technical and financial applications to reduce and mitigate the countries' vulnerability to natural disasters. This initiative will contribute to improved post-disaster analysis and future disaster risk reduction planning for example, by reducing fiscal shocks through catastrophe financing, such as budget reserves, contingency facilities, or catastrophe insurance; or by establishing new building codes and rapid post-disaster assessments. ChallengeThe Pacific is one of the most natural disaster prone regions on earth. PICs are vulnerable to natural hazards that include floods, droughts, tropical cyclones, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. Any one of these hazards can result in disasters that affect the countries’ entire economic, human, and physical environment and severely affect their long-term development agenda. Some of the countries are facing losses from a single event that would exceed their annual gross domestic product (GDP). The average annual direct losses caused by natural disasters in the South Pacific region are estimated at US$284 million.Since 1950, natural disasters have affected approximately 9.2 million people in the Pacific region, causing 9,811 reported deaths. This has cost the PICs around US$3.2 billion (in nominal terms) in associated damage. In September 2009 a tsunami hit Samoa, American Samoa and Tonga. This tsunami left 150 people dead and some 5,300 people–2.5 percent of Samoa’s population–homeless. The tsunami also caused extensive damage to Samoa’s infrastructure. The cost of restoring infrastructure, maintaining access to basic social services, providing social safety nets to the affected population, and investing in disaster risk reduction, is expected to be around US$120 million, that is, 22 percent of GDP during the next three to four years.The consequences of natural disasters are especially dire for the poor who tend to live in higher-risk areas, and typically have fewer options in terms of protection or risk mitigation. Population pressure, compounded by the effects of climate change, is likely to increase this vulnerability. Recognizing these trends, there is now widespread acceptance of the need to mainstream disaster risk and climate change in development planning and financing. ApproachAt the request of the PICs, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)/Applied Geoscience and Technology Division (SOPAC), the World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank initiated work in 2007 aimed at quantifying the financial risk that countries face because of their exposure to natural disasters. These risk assessments, carried out using state-of-the-art risk modeling techniques, allowed the development of specific technical and financial solutions (or applications) to reduce or mitigate the effect of these risks.The first step in developing catastrophe risk profiles for the PICs involved compiling a comprehensive historical catalogue of all recorded events in the region, including tropical cyclones, earthquakes and tsunamis. These historical records were then used to build an even more comprehensive database of simulated catastrophic events using additional technical information about the known behavior of tropical cyclones, earthquakes and tsunamis, such as expected wind speeds and the location of fault lines. This information is referred to as thehazard database.The second step was to identify the geo-location, the characteristics and value of all assets that could be damaged by the catastrophic events. This information is referred to as the exposure database.The third step was to estimate the damage caused to assets because of a catastrophic event.The information from the first three steps was subsequently used to simulate many thousands of events and calculate risk profiles for each country. This information was also used to generate hazard and risk maps to identify the location of high-risk areas.Once the risk profiles were calculated, they can be used in many different practical applications that can reduce or redistribute the risk over time. These applications are discussed in more detail below. ResultsThe key result of this initiative is the Pacific Catastrophe Risk Information System (PacRIS)and the different practical applications that have been developed using the vast information the system contains. Another important result of the project is that PacRIS is managed and owned by SOPAC for the benefit of its member countries, thus achieving economies of scale and providing catastrophe risk data management services to it members. The following applications that have been developed so far will significantly help to reduce the risks these countries' 10 million people face every year.State-of-the-art catastrophe risk models. For each of the 15 PICs, state-of-the-art catastrophe risk models have been developed to assess the economic and fiscal impact of natural disasters, including earthquakes, tsunamis and tropical cyclones. In particular, the models estimate the economic losses caused by natural disasters with different return periods (for example, frequency of occurrence).Country disaster risk profiles. Risk profiles have been developed for all 15 PICs which integrate data collected and produced through the risk modeling process and include maps showing the geographic distribution of hazards, assets at risk, and potential losses that can be used to prioritize disaster risk management interventions. The profiles also include analysis of the distribution of the potential cost of natural disasters by magnitude over time for each country, as measured by the expected return period for losses of a specified amount. This analysis will be used to develop financing options to cover the cost of natural disaster risks.Disaster and Climate Risk Financing and Insurance. This application aims to assist the PICs in improving their macroeconomic planning against natural disasters, and the design and implementation of a national disaster risk financing strategy, as part of their national disaster risk management and climate change adaptation agenda.Pacific Catastrophe Risk Information System (PacRIS)The PacRIS is managed by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)/Applied Geoscience and Technology Division (SOPAC). PacRIS itself consists of three large databases. Containing about a terabyte of data, PacRIS has information for 14 Pacific Island Countries and Timor-Leste. The system houses the most comprehensive historical catalogue of earthquakes and tropical cyclones, a database of geo-referenced fixed assets, and probabilistic analyses and mapping of risk carried out to date. PacRIS contains digitized maps describing residential buildings, major infrastructure such as roads, bridges and power stations, vegetation cover, crop maps, soil and topography, and bathymetry (sea depth). This information in PacRIS is being used for a number of practical applications.Database of Historical Tropical Cyclones and Earthquakes (Hazard Database). The database is the result of an exhaustive effort of collecting, merging, and processing data from multiple sources regarding historical Pacific earthquakes and tropical cyclones, and the monetary losses and impact on populations caused by these events. The historical earthquake catalogue currently includes about 115,000 events of magnitude 5 or greater that occurred in the region between 1768 and 2009, while the tropical cyclone catalogue includes 2,422 events from 1948 to 2008.Database of Accumulated Losses (Consequence Database). Most of these events did not have major consequences for the human population, infrastructure and residential buildings, or crops, but some did. A “consequence” database was assembled that contains approximately 450 events from 1831 to 2009 that affected at least one of the 15 PICs. This database, which is the most complete in existence for the Pacific region, shows that, on average, these countries have collectively experienced losses in the order of US$1 billion per decade, rising to US$4 billion in both the 1980s and the 1990s.Database of Assets Exposed to Disasters (Exposure Database). This database contains components for buildings and infrastructure, agriculture, and population. For the building and infrastructure dataset, more than 450,000 footprints (outlines) of structures were digitized (captured in computer) from high-resolution satellite images. These buildings represent about 30 percent of the estimated total number of buildings in PICs, and cover all urban buildings in the Pacific. Of these, about 80,000 were physically checked, photographed and classified. An additional 3 million, primarily rural buildings, were geolocated and classified using remote sensing techniques.In addition to the infrastructure and residential buildings, the database also includes information on major cash crops, ground cover, topological maps and population. To date, this database is the most comprehensive exposure dataset for this part of the world. The estimated total replacement cost of all the assets in the 15 PICs is about US$113 billion, an amount that includes US$94 billion in buildings, US$15 billion in infrastructure assets, and US$4 billion in major crops.BeneficiariesThe immediate beneficiaries of the PCRAFI are the members of the Pacific disaster risk management and climate change adaptation community, including the National Disaster Risk Management Offices, Ministries of Environment and other national agencies responsible for urban planning, agriculture, health, water, and energy; local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in community-based disaster risk management; regional technical centers such as the Secretariat of the Pacific Community SPC/SOPAC; multilateral development banks; bilateral donor agencies; and the private insurance and reinsurance industry. The ultimate beneficiaries are of course the people of the PICs who in the end, will benefit from more informed decisions on development planning and financing. Bank ContributionThe Bank is providing knowledge accumulated from its work in disaster risk management initiatives in other regions, particularly Latin America and the Caribbean. The Bank is also providing technical leadership in the areas of risk modeling, finance, public expenditure analysis and geographic information systems development. PartnersThe PCRAFI is a joint initiative between the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)/Applied Geoscience and Technology Division (SOPAC), the World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank. To provide guidance on the various disaster risk management applications to be developed and implemented using the PCRAFI tools and to develop national ownership of the PCRAFI products, tools, and system, the establishment of a working group under the Pacific Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Partnership Network is under consideration.This technical assistance initiative has had a total budget of US$3.3 million. Financial support of US$1.3 million has been made available by the Government of Japan under the World Bank-administered Japan Policy and Human Resources Development (PHRD) Technical Assistance (TA) program. Through the Asian Development Bank, the Japanese Government has provided an additional US$1 million to cover the costs of the field verification of data. The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) has contributed an additional US$1 million.For the next phase of the project the ACP-EU Natural Disaster Risk Reduction Program funded by the European Commission provided funding of US$1,4 million to strengthen the Pacific risk information system and its use by Pacific island countries . Toward the FuturePacRIS provides a powerful tool for managing catastrophe risk in the Pacific, through the development of applications to solve specific on-the-ground problems. Some of these applications are already under development and other potential uses are expected to emerge.Urban and development planning. Planners can use the information to evaluate changes to land use and zoning based on natural hazard risk, to develop investment plans to retrofit buildings for earthquakes, or to raise floor levels to avoid flooding due to tropical cyclones. The risk assessment can also be used to carry out cost benefit analyses of proposed disaster prevention or mitigation investments.Building codes. The earthquake and tropical cyclone hazard models provide critical information for building codes in terms of country-specific seismic and wind loads that buildings should be designed for to ensure adequate shelter for the population.Rapid disaster impact estimation. The aim of this application would be to use baseline information on assets already collected to model the expected losses from a catastrophic event immediately after a disaster. Rapid assessments will facilitate faster funds flows in post-disaster situations. Show Less -
OverviewIn the aftermath of volcanic eruptions on Papua New Guinea's Gazelle Peninsula in 1994, the World Bank has worked with partners to help rebuild infrastructure from scratch in several communiti... Show More +es, relocating thousands of villagers to safer ground, providing them with new water supplies, and a new school for their children. The project also ensured the sustainability of social and economic well-being while minimizing the adverse impacts of future volcanic eruptions on lives, property and livelihoods in the Gazelle Peninsula.ChallengeAfter 50 years of dormancy, two volcanoes in Rabaul, Mt. Tavurvur and Mt. Vulcan, erupted in September1994 for the third time in 100 years. The volcanoes destroyed almost the entire physical, social and economic infrastructure and facilities in Rabaul Town, and the surrounding areas were completely destroyed, severely damaged, or heavily contaminated by ash. While deaths and injuries were relatively low, around 30,000 residents lost their homes and about two-thirds of them sought permanent resettlement away from hazardous areas. Estimates from the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) placed public asset losses from the eruption at around US$280 million, with comparable losses for private homes and businesses. In light of extensive damage to the town of Rabaul and the persistence of hazardous conditions, the national and provincial authorities decided to resettle the entire affected population in new permanent settlements throughout the Peninsula. ApproachThe project was designed to support the Medium Term Restoration Program of the East New Britain Provincial Administration Program. This initiative aimed to restore the social and economic well-being of the people of East New Britain to levels that prevailed prior to the 1994 eruption. The project worked to strengthen the capacity for service provision and the resilience of communities to any future disasters. Additionally, the project improved quality of life in displaced communities, rebuilt transport infrastructure and social services, and reestablished the township of Rabaul as a regional port. In particular, there were two innovative approaches in this project that contributed to its overall effectiveness:There were no trade-offs between simultaneously building new systems and delivering results. In a foreshadowing of the current focus on 'implementation support', the Bank helped the Gazelle Restoration Authority (GRA) develop its own systems for all aspects of the works program. The East New Britain Provincial Administration had pre-existing systems that were transferred to the GRA; their early systems provided a good institutional foundation for promoting quality and integrity and, in doing so, nurtured public expectations of transparency and fairness.Secondly, the project nurtured involvement by several stakeholder groups, including the communities themselves and the private sector. Unusually for an organization dominated by staff with engineering skill sets, the value of 'softer' competences like communication and team-building were not neglected by GRA, and this meant that for members of both host and resettled communities, communications and relations with GRA and the project were generally viewed as good by the project's beneficiaries. Contractors and the Chamber of Commerce expressed a high level of satisfaction with GRA, a confidence built upon perceptions that GRA and its Bank-financed project was well organized and transparent in its dealings and decisions. ResultsThe project, accommodated between10,000-12,000 people in relocation sites, and connected 10,000 people to new water supplies that reduced the costs of trucking in water to users. The project also constructed a new community school for 880 pupils ages 8-12 in Kokopo Town.Overall, the Gazelle Peninsula effort assisted the government in providing services and ensured the sustainability of social and economic well-being in reaching five key outcomes:By June 2003, the project had completed rebuilding infrastructure and services and had reached at least an 80% occupancy rate in all relocation areas.By June, 2003 it had assisted in the approval of a revised zoning plan that prohibited redevelopment in the devastated areas of Rabaul and by the project's closure in December 2007, it had completed port-related protection works in the town.By June 2003, 75% of other infrastructure, utilities, and social services under the first phase of the project had been completed.In1999-2003, the project helped lay a framework and an institutional plan for long-term development, as well as plans for improved coastal zone management and the mitigation of coastal zone hazards.By mid-2003, the provincial authority had approved detailed arrangements to integrate the GRA into its structure.BeneficiariesThe project directly benefited as many as 12,000 people from the Gazelle Peninsula, who had their livelihoods shattered and their homes made uninhabitable by the twin volcanic eruptions in 1994. They now have new homes in safer areas, access to sustainable public services, and greater protection from future eruptions. Additionally, thousands more in other communities stand to benefit from the adoption of the successful development model used in the Gazelle Peninsula reconstruction effort. PartnersThere was a large amount of parallel co-financing for the project from a number of sources. IBRD's US$25.3 million loan complimented by grants of US$20,000 from the Rabaul Volcanological Disaster Relief Committee, US$40,000 from the Cocoa and Coconut Institute PNG, US$180,000 from the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Harbours Board, and US$4.2 million from the PNG Sustainable Development Fund. Additionally, the European Union (EU) provided US$7.5 million, the Asian Development Bank provided US$150,000, and Australia's AusAID provided a grant of US$11.9 million. Papua New Guinea itself (including national, provincial and district governments) also contributed US$14.5 million. The initial appraisal estimate was US$39.5 million but with additional financing from the EU, AusAID, and Papua New Guinea, the actual project cost of US$65.4 was fully met. Toward the FutureThe GRA proved itself to be a successful and efficient partner throughout the project. The Authority had a reputation as a well-designed, consultative public works program that provided high quality work, delivered from a predominantly nationally-staffed team. This good standing meant that many lessons have been taken from the Second Gazelle Restoration Project to be applied in other similar projects. Additionally, a number of the Authority's contract and quality control mechanisms have been adopted by government departments in PNG and are being examined by other Pacific countries.Of particular relevance to other projects were two specific factors that contributed to the overall effectiveness: the development of home-grown systems for all aspects of the works program, while basing them as much on their own internally-driven initiative as on fiduciary standards imposed by external agencies; and the inclusion of softer competences like communication and team-building to ensure that the project was perceived as being firm but fair. Show Less -