Ten Pacific Island countries which are members of the World Bank have a population of about 2.3 million people, scattered across an area equivalent to 15% of the globe’s surface, with a development trajectory that will be shaped by their economic geography.
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Just as a picture is worth a thousand words, a “voice” can be worth a hundred statistics. In this book you will see the pictures and hear the voices of our partners in development: a mother cradling h... Show More +er little boy who is alive because of a new health facility in Cambodia; a school principal in Beijing who talks with passion about how her school is part of the solar energy wave; a cocoa farmer in Papua New Guinea who happily works with youth to help them build a sustainable crop and a sustainable future; a village chief in Lao PDR who lovingly holds his grandson and talks about the better life he now knows the boy can have; and a student in Vietnam whose life changed when she received a scholarship. Show Less -
January 26, 2015Key FindingsAlmost 200 million people moved to urban areas in East Asia from 2000-2010, a figure that would be the world’s sixth-largest population for any single country.Most of East ... Show More +Asia’s population is still non-urban, meaning the region will likely face decades of further urbanization.The Pearl River Delta in China – which includes the cities of Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan and Dongguan – has overtaken Tokyo as the world’s largest urban area in both size and population, with more inhabitants than countries such as Argentina, Australia or Canada.China’s government-implemented urbanization dominates East Asia with 600 of the region’s 869 urban areas located in the country, which also has more than two-thirds of East Asia’s total urban land.East Asia’s urban areas included eight “megacities” with populations over 10 million, 123 large cities with one to 10 million people, and 738 medium and small cities with 100,000 to one million people.The report establishes a direct link between urbanization and income growth, showing how economic output per capita increased throughout the region as the percentage of people living in urban areas went up.Expanding urban areas often cross administrative or political boundaries such as municipal borders, which fragments government management and revenue sources.The rate at which urban areas expanded physically varied widely between countries. Mostly rural countries had the highest spatial expansion rates, with Lao PDR at 7.3 percent and Cambodia at 4.3 percent, while industrialized Japan had the lowest rate of increase at 0.4 percent despite containing the second-largest amount of urban land behind China. Show Less -
The Stories of Impact series highlights work involving the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) that has helped to reduce developing countries' vulnerability to natura... Show More +l hazards and build communities' resilience.Weathering Future Storms in the SeychellesA damage and loss assessment supported by the World Bank Group and managed by GFDRR led to the development of multi-risk mapping and an extensive review of flood risk financing options for the Indian Ocean nation as it recovered from a cyclone. Read moreDisaster Planning Pays Off in Odisha, IndiaEffective disaster risk management significantly reduced casualties from Cyclone Phailin, and GFDRR and other partners are supporting the strengthening and scaling up of these efforts through the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP).Read moreBuilding Back Better in Tonga after Cyclone IanField assessments after Cyclone Ian revealed that properly designed and constructed housing infrastructure prevented more deaths, injuries, and physical damage. That led to a Housing Recovery and Reconstruction policy in Tonga. Read moreProtecting School Infrastructure Against Earthquake Risks in PeruThe World Bank, GFDRR and the Government of Peru have been working through the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (CAPRA) Program to promote the application of risk-related data for better informed decision making. Read moreResilient Recovery in Samoa After Cyclone EvanAn assessment of the socio-economic damage from Cyclone Evan helped mobilize grants that are working to repair and strengthen facilities and road infrastructure and build resilience in public financial management to future shocks. Read moreStakeholders Engage to Build Belize's Climate ResilienceFacing the risk of climate-related disasters, Belize is working to improve its resilience by transforming the country’s approach to economic and social development with a national plan that cuts across all sectors. Read moreManaging Drought, Sustaining Growth in DjiboutiDjibouti is at particular risk for water shortages and severe flooding, both of which profoundly impact its growing but fragile economic sector. GFDRR is helping the country build resilience. Read moreEnhancing Seismic Preparedness in IstanbulA disaster preparedness program supported by the World Bank Group and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery has helped earthquake-vulnerable Istanbul retrofit or rebuild over 1,000 public buildings. Read moreRapidly Assessing Flood Damage in Uttarakhand, IndiaGFDRR and partners conducted a Joint Rapid Damage Needs Assessment (JRDNA) for the Uttarakhand region soon after the devastating 2013 monsoons, completing a thorough analysis of damage and providing the necessary foundation for recovery efforts to begin. Read moreAssessing Post-Disaster Needs in NigeriaAfter severe flooding in 2012, Nigeria asked GFDRR and other key partners to conduct a comprehensive Post-Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA). Read moreCommunity-Based Disaster Risk Reduction in NigerGFDRR and partners have financed an almost $1 million disaster risk reduction project in Niger to build capacity of local communities for early warning and response. Read moreStrengthening Financial Resilience in the PacificIn response to requests from 15 countries, the World Bank, GFDRR, and other partners formed the Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI) in 2007 to help mitigate disaster and climate change risk. Read moreDisaster-Proofing the Transport Sector in VietnamThe government of Vietnam, with support from GFDRR and the World Bank, has made important strides in building the resilience of the transport sector against risk from natural disasters and climate change. Read more Show Less -
May 8, 2014KEY FINDINGSIn the last 20 years, East Asia Pacific saw rising productivity amid a brisk structural transformation, with large movements of people into cities and higher output in agricultu... Show More +re, manufacture and services. Countries that were poor a generation ago successfully integrated into the global value chain, taking advantage of low labor costs.The unprecedented economic development in East Asia Pacific has provided jobs that lifted millions of people out of poverty and has been a triumph of working people. The share of the population working or seeking work in most countries, including women, is higher than other nations with similar income levels.Current employment policies, though relatively stringent on paper but poorly enforced in reality, have failed to benefit most workers, favoring prime-aged men in salaried positions at the expense of women, youth and those with low skills. Empirical evidence shows that rising minimum wages in Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand disproportionately reduce employment opportunities for women and young people.Across the region, more than 30% of people ages 15 to 24 are completely left out—they have neither a job nor receive any education or training. That creates labor market segmentation and exclusion, as well as a higher risk of social unrest and violence. Meanwhile, rising wages for skilled workers, which benefit from the current policies, have led to higher inequality in some countries.The issue has taken on more urgency recently, as the region’s economic growth is moderating and labor costs are rising. With empirical evidence presented in the report, policy makers are urged to enact labor regulations and social protection policies to benefit all workers, including those in the large informal economy.RECOMMENDATIONSThe region’s economic and demographic changes, as well as its relatively short labor history, present an opportunity for countries to adopt a new lower cost social protection model than countries in regions with long, established policies.It is now time to consolidate growth by enacting social policies that protect people, rather than any particular sector, location or profession. When well-designed, those policies should make sure social protection and labor regulations reach the most vulnerable workers in society.Modest, nationally-financed unemployment packages, for example, can help employers avoid costly severance schemes. They can also lower labor taxes and encourage business to become formal. Thailand’s universal health care policy, for example, is a form of social insurance that has already lowered out-of-pocket costs for patients and led to wider use of medical services.Of course, the East Asia Pacific region’s diverse emerging economies—from mostly rural to urbanizing and small, remote islands—defy a one-size-fits-all approach.For the many countries that are still mainly agrarian, policy makers need to focus on boosting agricultural productivity and encouraging non-farm enterprises. For urbanizing economies, governments need to focus on making cities work better by boosting infrastructure and improving services.More importantly, countries need to look beyond the labor market and focus on fundamentals, such as those that ensure price stability, encourage investment and innovation, and support a regulatory framework that enables small and medium-size enterprises, which employ most people in the region. Show Less -
Temuan laporanPertumbuhan ekonomi negara-negara berkembang Asia Timur dan Pasifik akan sedikit melemah pada tahun ini, meskipun kawasan ini mendapat keuntungan dari harga minyak yang lebih rendah sert... Show More +a terus membaiknya perekonomian negara-negara maju.Sepertiga pertumbuhan global tetap berasal dari kawasan Asia Timur dan Pasifik, dua kali lipat total kontribusi kawasan berkembang lainnya.Ekonomi negara-negara berkembang Asia Timur diproyeksikan tumbuh sebesar 6,7% pada tahun 2015 dan 2016, sedikit turun dari 6,9% pada 2014.Pertumbuhan Tiongkok diproyeksikan sedikit menurun menjadi 7% dalam dua tahun ke depan, dibandingakan 7,4% pada 2014.Pertumbuhan negara-negara lain di Asia Timur diproyeksikan naik setengah persen, menjadi 5,1% tahun ini yang sebagian besar akibat permintaan domestik di negara-negara ekonomi besar Asia Tenggara.Beberapa negara ekonomi lebih kecil, terutama eksportir komoditas seperti Mongolia, akan mengalami pertumbuhan lebih rendah.Turunnya harga minyak akan membawa keuntungan bagi negara-negara berkembang di Asia Timur, terutama Kamboja, Laos, Filipina, Thailand, dan negara-negara Kepulauan Pasifik.Tetapi negara-negara pengekspor minyak di kawasan, termasuk Malaysia dan Papua Nugini, akan mengalami pertumbuhan dan penerimaan negara yang lebih rendah.Di Indonesia, dampak pada pertumbuhan akan tergantung pada seberapa banyak penurunan yang akan terjadi pada ekspor batubara dan gas.Masih banyak risiko yang ada.Pulihnya ekonomi negara-negara berpenghasilan tinggi akan terus melambat dan tidak sama, dan melemahnya kawasan Eropa dan Jepang akan memperlemah perdagangan global.Suku bunga yang lebih tinggi di Amerika Serikat dan menguatnya mata uang Dollar, disertai dengan kebijakan moneter yang berbeda diantara negara-negara ekonomi maju, bisa meningkatkan biaya pinjaman, menciptakan gejolak keuangan, dan mengurangi aliran modal ke Asia Timur.Terus menguatnya mata uang US Dollar terhadap mata uang utama lainnya bisa merugikan ekonomi yang banyak menggunakan Dollar, seperti Kamboja dan Timor-Leste.Untuk mengatasi risiko-risiko tersebut, memperbaiki kebijakan fiskal akan menjadi kunci penting. Dengan turunnya harga minyak, negara – baik importir atau eksportir – perlu mereformasi harga energi mereka untuk membuka kebijakan fiskal yang lebih berkelanjutan dan adil.Umumnya di negara-negara Asia Timur dengan ekonomi lebih besar, upaya untuk memperkuat penerimaan dan merestrukturisasi belanja bisa mengisi kekurangan investasi infrastruktur dan membuat lebih banyak dana tersedia untuk program perlindungan sosial dan asuransi.Negara-negara pengekspor bahan bakar utama dan Mongolia perlu melakukan konsolidasi fiskal.Harga minyak yang lebih rendah membawa peluang bagi pemerintah untuk mengurangi subsidi bahan bakar dan menaikkan pajak energi. Di sebagian besar kawasan, subsidi bahan bakar dan pajak pengeluaran yang terkait dengannya telah membebani keuangan publik dan melemahkan neraca berjalan.Beberapa negara, termasuk Indonesia dan Malaysia, belum lama ini mengambil langkah untuk memangkas subsidi bahan bakar, tetapi momentum ini perlu terus dipertahankan dan diperluas, bahkan apabila harga minyak sudah mulai pulih.Di Tiongkok, sedang terjadi pergeseran dari pertumbuhan yang didorong investasi ke pertumbuhan yang didorong oleh konsumsi, dan tantangan utamanya adalah menerapkan reformasi yang akan memastikan pembangunan berkelanjutan untuk jangka panjang. Kebijakan untuk mempercepat pembangunan, menurut laporan ini, perlu mendukung upaya-upaya restrukturisasi.Dalam jangka menengah, negara-negara di kawasan perlu memperluas dan meningkatkan infrastruktur fisik dan memperbaiki akses masyarakat ke pendidikan tinggi dan layanan kesehatan.Dalam jangka panjang, negara-negara perlu mencari cara untuk mempertahankan pertumbuhan produktivitas, menjaga biaya perawatan kesehatan, dan memperluas basis penerimaan untuk menyediakan jaminan sosial. Show Less -
This page in: Bahasa IndonesiaKey findingsEconomic growth will ease slightly in developing countries in East Asia and Pacific this year, even as the region benefits from lower oil prices and a continu... Show More +ed economic recovery in developed economies.The region will still account for one-third of global growth, twice the combined contribution of all other developing regionsThe developing economies of East Asia are projected to grow by 6.7% in 2015 and 2016, slightly down from 6.9% in 2014.China’s growth is expected to moderate to around 7% in the next two years, compared with 7.4% in 2014.Growth in the rest of developing East Asia is expected to rise by half a percentage point, to 5.1% this year, largely driven by domestic demand in the large Southeast Asian economies.Several smaller economies, especially commodity exporters such as Mongolia, will see lower growth.Low oil prices will benefit most developing countries in East Asia, especially Cambodia, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand, and the Pacific island countries.But the region’s net fuel exporters, including Malaysia and Papua New Guinea, will see slower growth and lower government revenues.In Indonesia, the net impact on growth will depend on how much a decline there will be for its coal and gas exports.The recovery in high-income countries continues to be slow and uneven, and a downturn in the eurozone and Japan would weaken global trade.Higher U.S. interest rates and an appreciating U.S. dollar, along with diverging monetary policy paths across advanced economies, could raise borrowing costs, generate financial volatility and reduce capital flows to East Asia.The continued strengthening of the U.S. dollar against other major currencies also could hurt highly-dollarized economies such as Cambodia and Timor-Leste.To address these risks, improving fiscal policy is key. With low oil prices, countries – whether oil importers or exporters – should reform energy pricing to usher in fiscal policies that are more sustainable and equitable.”In most of the larger East Asian economies, efforts to bolster revenues and restructure spending can help fill the gap in infrastructure investments and create more funding for social protection and insurance programs.In the major fuel exporting countries and Mongolia, fiscal consolidation is required.Lower oil prices create an opportunity for governments to reduce fuel subsidies and raise energy taxes. Across much of the region, fuel subsidies and related tax expenditures have strained public finances and weakened current accounts.Some countries, including Indonesia and Malaysia, recently took steps to cut fuel subsidies, but the momentum needs to be sustained and broadened, even if oil prices begin to recover.In China, as it shifts to a consumption-led, rather than an investment-led, growth model, the main challenge is to implement reforms that will ensure sustainable growth in the long run. Policies to spur growth, the report says, should support restructuring efforts.In the medium term, the report says, countries should expand and upgrade physical infrastructure and improve public access to higher education and health care.In the long term, countries will need to find ways to sustain productivity growth, contain health care costs and expand the revenue base for social security. Show Less -