With a population of more than 1.2 billion, India is the world’s largest democracy. Over the past decade, the country’s integration into the global economy has been accompanied by economic growth. India has now emerged as a global player.
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India: The India Elementary Education Project (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan or SSA) (IDA $1.25 billion over two projects, Specific Investment Loans) is an example of a project that reaches out to groups that... Show More + have been excluded, aiming to boost the enrollment of children from poor families, marginalized and tribal groups and those with special needs. It has helped the government enroll more than 17 million out-of-school children in elementary school, including girls, first-generation learners from long-deprived communities and minority communities, and children with special needs. The number of out-of-school children declined from 25 million to 8.1 million (less than 5 percent of the age cohort 6-14). Approximately 2.9 million children with special needs have been identified and are being covered with a variety of interventions, like residential centers, home-based education. With these efforts, India is moving toward its target of ensuring that all children will be able to complete a fu Show Less -
BeneficiariesKunti Devi, mother of four in Shekhwara village in Gaya district, barely had an acre of farmland. Faced with frequent droughts, she had to mortgage her land to the local moneylender, forcing... Show More + the family to work as laborers on others’ lands. The project helped free her from the vicious cycle of debt. “I took a loan of Rs 10,000 from the self-help group to free my land. Today I’m able to repay it at a very low rate of interest compared to what I was forced to pay to the moneylender. Thanks to better farming methods introduced under the project, the productivity from my land has gone up four times. My income has increased and I am able to send my son to college,” said a beaming Kunti Devi.Manna Devi, mother of three, used to find it difficult to feed her family. “We were living a hand-to-mouth existence before and we just couldn’t manage to eat, let alone put our children through school. We were only producing about 30 kg of wheat which lasted us four months and we had to take Show Less -
In a village in Tanzania, for example, women are now making clay pots and growing vegetables to sell at market. The work is generating income, but within the community, it is viewed as an extension of... Show More + women’s domestic duties and not as a breadwinner role.Almost everywhere, the focus groups described men remaining the primary income earners and decision makers, and the allocation of free time, responsibilities, and power being unequally distributed. Nearly one-third of the groups said domestic violence was common and reinforced gender norms.“Norms are changing, but the change is slow and incremental, and its pace does not always keep up with economic opportunities and development. As a result, women, as well as men, get excluded from opportunities perceived as gender-inappropriate,” said Carrie Turk, a World Bank gender specialist and co-author of the report. "Development programs can help alleviate these constraints, since change needs to happen on all levels to take effect: on in Show Less -