With a population of more than 1.2 billion, India is the world’s largest democracy. Over the past decade, the country’s integration into the global economy has been accompanied by economic growth. India has now emerged as a global player.
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ContextFor billions around the world—especially the world’s poorest—healthy oceans mean jobs, food and protection. FAO estimates that fisheries and aquaculture assure the livelihoods of 10-12 percent of... Show More + the world’s population with more than 90 percent of those employed by capture fisheries working in small-scale operations in developing countries. Oceans are equally important for food security and jobs. In 2012, fisheries produced roughly 160 million tons of fish and generated over US$129 billion in exports while securing access to nutrition for billions of people and accounting for 16 percent of total global animal protein. Coastal areas within 100 kilometers of the ocean account for an estimated 61 percent of the world’s total Gross National Product (GNP) and are of particular importance for developing countries; in 54 coastal and island countries up to two thirds of total national territory is ocean. Overall, healthy oceans, coasts and freshwater ecosystems are crucial for economic Show Less -
Better data monitoringThe report also found that with a few exceptions the World Bank’s projects that were reviewed did not include air pollution control as a primary objective. As a result, these projects... Show More + missed the opportunity to collect critical data, and establish baselines that would help measure the success of air pollution reduction interventions that they supported. Many developing countries lack the infrastructure and standardized methods to collect and interpret data that might inform better decision-making and help set national air quality standards. Better data and systematic monitoring are necessary if countries hope to respond to pollution. Sound analytical data and monitoring of changes over time were some of the critical factors of success in Santiago, Chile, for example, where authorities implemented cleaner transport solutions that were successful in lowering air pollution.World Bank projects in Chile, Mongolia and Peru demonstrate the importance Show Less -
The World Bank Group-Global Environment Facility (GEF) Program is one of the institution’s largest and longest standing trust-funded programs. Since 1991, when the World Bank helped to establish the GEF,... Show More + it has integrated global environmental benefits across the Bank programs through more than 790 investment projects and programs in 120 countries (pdf) spanning every region of the world.GEF grants directly support actions to combat major environmental issues such as climate change, loss of biodiversity, polluted international waters, land degradation and desertification, and persistent organic pollutants, as well as stimulate green growth. The World Bank Group program has collectively channeled over $4.8 billion (representing 38 percent of total GEF funding disbursed) in GEF grants to the private sector, NGOs, and client countries over the past two decades, and stands out among for its sustained track record in helping design and support implementation of innovative and tailored s Show Less -
Bank Group ContributionThe World Bank and Bank-managed trust funds are increasingly supporting initiatives to rebuild the ocean’s natural capital. Many of the Bank’s investments in the oceans over the... Show More + last five years promote the sustainable governance of marine fisheries, the establishment of coastal and marine protected areas, and integrated coastal resource management. The World Bank’s active ‘blue growth’ portfolio comprises activities worth US$6.4 billion. This amount includes fisheries management, habitat conservation including integrated coastal zone management, pollution reduction and water resource management.Partners The Bank has been working with dozens of partners to increase investment in healthy oceans. In support of this, the Bank has participated in many numbers of ocean events for both technical and political purposes, raising both the profile and reach of our work, while also contributing to broader ocean community engagement. In addition to bilateral partnerships Show Less -
In 1995, Indonesia put in place a voluntary, public disclosure scheme that encouraged firms to self-report their contributions to local water pollution. The government checked and assigned a color-coded... Show More + rating (black for those factories that made no effort and gold for adhering to international standards). These ratings were made public, bestowing shame or honor on the companies. This information sharing led to behavior change on the part of the companies, and eventually resulted in lower levels of pollution.When the Indian capital city, Delhi, was choking with high levels of smog, a civil society group, the Centre for Science and Environment, asked the Supreme Court to enforce the Clean Air Act that had been passed 15 years ago. A public campaign followed that involved releasing quantitative data on the health impacts of pollution. In 1998, the Supreme Court compelled the Government to enforce its own regulations pertaining to air quality, reducing the ambient levels of respirable sus Show Less -