With a population of more than 1.2 billion, India is the world’s largest democracy. Over the past decade, the country’s integration into the global economy has been accompanied by economic growth. India has now emerged as a global player.
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Adding up the BenefitsUntil now, socioeconomic benefits and environmental externalities, those consequences of industrial or commercial activities not reflected in their costs, have often been left out... Show More + of economic analysis because they have been difficult to measure. This report introduces a new macroeconomic modeling framework that can incorporate these considerations, providing a more holistic analysis of the co-benefits of development investments. The new modeling tools:• Measure the multiple benefits of reducing emissions of several pollutants.• Can be used to better design and analyze policies and projects.• Provide a rationale for combining climate action with sustainable development.This report utilizes the new framework in seven simulated case studies – three dealing with sector policies and four focused on project level interventions – to calculate the many benefits of air pollution reduction. The sector policies include regulations, taxes, and incentives to stimulat Show Less -
Bank Group ContributionOver the past decade, the Bank (IBRD/IDA) committed funding for US$33 billion, from which IDA’s contribution was US$7.7 billion (23 percent) to support investment in environment... Show More + and natural resource management (ENRM). By far, climate change has been the fastest growing ENRM area where the Bank is supporting client countries. Other areas that have significantly expanded in the last five years are environmental policy and institutions, and water resource management. As for the types of funding provided over the decade, development policy lending accounted for 30 percent and investment lending 70 percent of the Bank’s ENRM portfolio. The trend is in favor of development policy lending that increased to 33% of the ENRM portfolio in the last five years (FY09-13).In addition to funding ENRM projects directly, IDA has leveraged additional funds through the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and other agencies and organizations. Specifically, the GEF provides grants to ID Show Less -
Bank Group ContributionThe World Bank and Bank-managed trust funds are increasingly supporting initiatives to rebuild the ocean’s natural capital. Many of the Bank’s investments in the oceans over the... Show More + last five years promote the sustainable governance of marine fisheries, the establishment of coastal and marine protected areas, and integrated coastal resource management. The World Bank’s active ‘blue growth’ portfolio comprises activities worth US$6.4 billion. This amount includes fisheries management, habitat conservation including integrated coastal zone management, pollution reduction and water resource management.Partners The Bank has been working with dozens of partners to increase investment in healthy oceans. In support of this, the Bank has participated in many numbers of ocean events for both technical and political purposes, raising both the profile and reach of our work, while also contributing to broader ocean community engagement. In addition to bilateral partnerships Show Less -
In the short span of three years, India has made impressive strides in developing its abundant solar power potential. It has added capacity at a commendable pace, and successfully reduced the costs of... Show More + solar energy to around $0.12 per kWh for solar photo voltaic (PV) and $0.21 per kWh for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), making India amongst the lowest cost destinations for grid-connected solar power in the world.Growth in the energy sector is key for India as more than 300 million of the country’s people still lack access to electricity, and industry cites energy shortages as a critical barrier to growth. The development of solar power will help India produce clean energy and contribute to reducing emissions per unit of GDP by 20-25% by 2020, over 2005 levels.Development of solar power in IndiaIndia’s concerted efforts to develop solar power began in January 2010, when the country launched the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) as one of the eight missions under the country Show Less -
Who is most at risk?The new study, part of an ongoing OECD project, examined maps and databases of population and world assets, flood-prone regions, storm frequency data, and cost of damage models for... Show More + 136 large coastal cities. For the first time, it took into account existing coastal defenses and their level of protection.In terms of the overall cost of damage, the cities at the greatest risk are: 1) Guangzhou, 2) Miami, 3) New York, 4) New Orleans, 5) Mumbai, 6) Nagoya, 7) Tampa, 8) Boston, 9) Shenzen, and 10) Osaka. The top four cities alone account for 43% of the forecast total global losses.However, developing-country cities move up the list when flood costs are measured as a percentage of city gross domestic product (GDP). Many of them are growing rapidly, have large populations, are poor, and are exposed to tropical storms and sinking land. The study lists the 10 most vulnerable cities when measured as percentage of GDP as: 1) Guangzhou; 2) New Orleans; 3) Guayaquil, Ec Show Less -
The region is already experiencing a warming climate that can be seen in warmer periods in India, increasing variability of the monsoon rainfall, intense rainfalls and an increase in the number of droughts.... Show More + Droughts will especially affect northwestern India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. In Nepal, glaciers will melt faster and threaten people’s access to water and energy supplies from hydropower.Additionally, climate changes are not uniformly spread around the world; for example, the sea level rise is expected to be 10-15% higher in countries closer to the equator. This is especially problematic for low lying, coastal countries such as Bangladesh, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka.For South Asia, the most significant climate risks with a warming of 2ºC include:· Periods of droughts and intense rains will increase· Frequency of unusually hot and extreme temperatures will increase, increasing death rates and reducing crop yields. · Water availability will be unreliable and li Show Less -