With a population of more than 1.2 billion, India is the world’s largest democracy. Over the past decade, the country’s integration into the global economy has been accompanied by economic growth. India has now emerged as a global player.
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Adding up the BenefitsUntil now, socioeconomic benefits and environmental externalities, those consequences of industrial or commercial activities not reflected in their costs, have often been left out... Show More + of economic analysis because they have been difficult to measure. This report introduces a new macroeconomic modeling framework that can incorporate these considerations, providing a more holistic analysis of the co-benefits of development investments. The new modeling tools:• Measure the multiple benefits of reducing emissions of several pollutants.• Can be used to better design and analyze policies and projects.• Provide a rationale for combining climate action with sustainable development.This report utilizes the new framework in seven simulated case studies – three dealing with sector policies and four focused on project level interventions – to calculate the many benefits of air pollution reduction. The sector policies include regulations, taxes, and incentives to stimulat Show Less -
Policies that inadvertently push people and businesses to the suburbs can impose a burden on citizens, especially the poor. Transportation costs between the metropolitan cores and the peripheries are among... Show More + the highest in the nation. Access to – and the quality of – water, sanitation, and electricity is much worse in the urban periphery than at the core. “With the right policies in place, the faster a country like India urbanizes, the faster it could reduce poverty and increase shared prosperity,” said Onno Ruhl, the World Bank’s country director for India. “Experience the world over has shown a crucial link between urbanization and economic growth.”Ruhl and his predecessor, Roberto Zagha, understand how important that link is for the future of India, a country where 32 percent of the population falls below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day. “Urbanization – and the economic growth behind it – is what will pull people out of poverty,” said Somik Lall, lead urban e Show Less -
The growth of cities is driven largely by the economic prosperity that they help create. But today cities are growing at unprecedented and challenging speeds. The World Bank's Urbanization Reviews offer... Show More + a framework for city leaders to make tough decisions on development in their cities by providing diagnostic tools to identify policy distortions and analyze investment priorities. What must be done to improve living conditions, especially in slums and hazard-prone areas? To create jobs? To expand the coverage and quality of basic services? The Urbanization Reviews help answer these critical questions.A series of prototypes have been piloted under the Urbanization Review, which seek to build a body of knowledge on urbanization challenges and public policy implications in a variety of country settings. Pilots in Colombia, India, Indonesia and Vietnam have already generated considerable traction with counterparts in national planning agencies and line ministries. Show Less -
Urban agriculture contributes to local economic development, poverty alleviation, the social inclusion of the urban poor and women, as well as to the greening of the city and the productive reuse of urban... Show More + wastes. While there is a growing awareness about the role of urban agriculture in the context of food security and poverty alleviation for urban populations, urban agriculture largely remains an informal sector that is not well integrated into agricultural policies or urban planning. Gaps in the availability of good quality, current and comparable data on the benefits and constraints of urban agriculture limit the design of relevant policies and interventions that would enhance the positive impacts for urban livelihoods and public health, as well as for the environment.The report Urban Agriculture: Findings from Four City Case Studies showcases four cities where urban agriculture is present. Through data collected in surveys, focus group discussions, and city consultations, this study Show Less -