With a population of more than 1.2 billion, India is the world’s largest democracy. Over the past decade, the country’s integration into the global economy has been accompanied by economic growth. India has now emerged as a global player.
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Adding up the BenefitsUntil now, socioeconomic benefits and environmental externalities, those consequences of industrial or commercial activities not reflected in their costs, have often been left out... Show More + of economic analysis because they have been difficult to measure. This report introduces a new macroeconomic modeling framework that can incorporate these considerations, providing a more holistic analysis of the co-benefits of development investments. The new modeling tools:• Measure the multiple benefits of reducing emissions of several pollutants.• Can be used to better design and analyze policies and projects.• Provide a rationale for combining climate action with sustainable development.This report utilizes the new framework in seven simulated case studies – three dealing with sector policies and four focused on project level interventions – to calculate the many benefits of air pollution reduction. The sector policies include regulations, taxes, and incentives to stimulat Show Less -
Policies that inadvertently push people and businesses to the suburbs can impose a burden on citizens, especially the poor. Transportation costs between the metropolitan cores and the peripheries are among... Show More + the highest in the nation. Access to – and the quality of – water, sanitation, and electricity is much worse in the urban periphery than at the core. “With the right policies in place, the faster a country like India urbanizes, the faster it could reduce poverty and increase shared prosperity,” said Onno Ruhl, the World Bank’s country director for India. “Experience the world over has shown a crucial link between urbanization and economic growth.”Ruhl and his predecessor, Roberto Zagha, understand how important that link is for the future of India, a country where 32 percent of the population falls below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day. “Urbanization – and the economic growth behind it – is what will pull people out of poverty,” said Somik Lall, lead urban e Show Less -
The growth of cities is driven largely by the economic prosperity that they help create. But today cities are growing at unprecedented and challenging speeds. The World Bank's Urbanization Reviews offer... Show More + a framework for city leaders to make tough decisions on development in their cities by providing diagnostic tools to identify policy distortions and analyze investment priorities. What must be done to improve living conditions, especially in slums and hazard-prone areas? To create jobs? To expand the coverage and quality of basic services? The Urbanization Reviews help answer these critical questions.A series of prototypes have been piloted under the Urbanization Review, which seek to build a body of knowledge on urbanization challenges and public policy implications in a variety of country settings. Pilots in Colombia, India, Indonesia and Vietnam have already generated considerable traction with counterparts in national planning agencies and line ministries. Show Less -
Table of ContentsForewordAcknowledgementsExecutive Summary1. Introduction and OverviewThe Approach and Structure of the ReportWhat is Urban Agriculture?The Challenges of Sustainable CitiesThe Role of Urban... Show More + Agriculture2. Key Findings from the Four City Case StudiesFarming in the CitiesUrban Agriculture’s Contribution to Livelihood and Food SecurityConstraints on Urban Agriculture Development3. Recommendations for Decision-makersIntegrating Urban Agriculture Into the Broader Urban Development AgendaThe City Level: Promoting Local Food Systems in Integrated Urban Land Use PlanningThe Value Chain: Strengthening Each Link Within the Urban Agriculture SectorThe Broader View: Beyond the CityAnnex A: Methodology of the Case StudiesAnnex B: Survey QuestionnaireAnnex C: A Note on the Challenges of the Survey DataAnnex D: Bangalore (India) Case StudyAnnex E: Accra (Ghana) Case StudyAnnex F: Nairobi (Kenya) Case StudyAnnex G: Lima (Peru) Case Study Show Less -