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Knowledge Pack : Agriculture

This Knowledge Pack contains Indigenous Knowledge cases and other useful information related to Agriculture. The indigenous knowledge pack is a tool that provides users with quick access to synthesized information by country or selected thematic area.

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IK Cases: Agriculture

Soil Conservation

Burkina Faso:Mossi Soil Conservation Practices

Burkina Faso: The use of stone bunds to build up terraces

Burkina Faso: Stone embankment created by farmers

Burkina Faso: Mossi soil classification system

Ethiopia: Gebeto seeds as fertilizers

Mozambique: Farmers supply a variety of ridging techniques

Tanzania: Strengths and weaknesses of the Matengo pits

 

Crop Husbandry

Burkina Faso: Mixed Cropping techniques

Cameroon: The use of organic fertilizer

Rwanda: Transfer of the Washambaa agricultural system

Tanzania: Weather forecasting based on ecology and meteorology

Zimbabwe: Anthill soil increases soil fertility

 

Post Harvest Techniques

Zimbabwe: Sun drying of fruits, vegetables and edible insects

Cameroon: Sorghum stalks as a source of salt

Congo: Palm wine techniques from the 16th century

Congo: Migrants introduce labor saving cassava processing technology

 

Food Security and Preservation

Benin: Cost effective cheese making techniques

Burkina Faso: Yogurt making Process

Nepal: Communities ensure transparency in the distribution of food aid

Nigeria: A natural refrigeration system

Tanzania: Producing wine for cultural and ritual practices

Cameroon: Long term storage of cassava

 

Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science

Cameroon: Ethno-veterinary practices

Tanzania: Practices ensuring reproductive health of animals

Tanzania: Veterinary practices for the prevention of disease

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Burkina faso: Mossi Soil Conservation Practices

Summary: Mossi soil conservation practices include the application of farmyard manure, strip fallow, rotational fallow, building of micro-catchments, mulching and reforestation. These ecologically sound methods are particularly valuable when combined with building stone contour bunds for alleviating an imbalance in soil fertility (see also practice ID 86).

Lesson: Agricultural extension needs to build on these techniques when introducing new technologies or varieties.

Source: Basga E. DIALLA ( IK Monitor 2 (1) 1994 CIRAN ) ; and : Jean Yves MARCHAL (1986), "Vingt ans de lutte antiérosive au nord du Burkina Faso", Cahiers ORSTOM, Série Pédologie XXII (2) : 173-180 External Link: CIRAN or contact, emile dialla@yahoo.fr


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Burkina Faso: The use of stone bunds to build up terraces

Summary: Early this century the Mossi put up lines of stones (bunds) on their cultivated land to build up terraces. Because of political instability this method was later abandoned. After a series of droughts in the 1970s, the bunds were revived. Pits that conserve water were added. They were filled with or-ganic material to increase soil fertility. Other introduced systems were shunned. The stone bunds are built up over the years, reaching about one meter height, terracing the slopes with relatively little labor input during the slack, dry season. The semi-permeable bunds allow for a gradual seeping in of the water and prevent the run-off caused by the scarce but highly intensive rains, reducing the risk of crop failure and soil erosion. In the disastrous drought years of 1983 and 1984, crops grew on land with bunds, while adjoining fields grew nothing. The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) assisted Burkina Faso to disseminate the technology throughout the country's densely populated central plateau, where today 150 villages on the plateau now have stone lines. Sorghum yields on the plateau have risen by about 40 percent in fields with bunds up to 40%.

Lesson: Locally developed practices require an enabling political and economical environment. A participatory approach allows farmers the choice of technology.

Source: Warren, D. M., Rajasekaran, B. 1993, Putting local knowledge to good use, International Agricultural Development 13 (4): 8-10 External Link: CIESIN


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Burkina Faso: Stone embankment created by farmers

Summary: The farmers construct an embankment made of stone along the contour. The purpose is to slow down the water runoff and thereby to allow a maximum of it to be absorbed in the soil, while leading away the excess amounts. More fertile soil accumulates behind the stonewalls, below the walls the soil degrades. As the sloe gradually decreases between the walls, soil fertility can be distributed more evenly with appropriate husbandry measures. This practice allows to reclaim degraded land, and to increase agricultural production. Contour bunds practice has been successfully transferred to other communities in Burkina Faso and some neighboring countries

Lesson: Nouni crop rotation systems help maintaining soil fertility and allow diversification of production on a small scale. However, a thorough study would be needed before changing some of its elements by introducing new crops, varieties or commercial seed.

Source: David K. PODA, "Mémoire de fin d'études en Agronomie", IDR, Université de Ouagadougou, June 1989, M4290

 


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Burkina Faso: Mossi soil classification system

Summary: The Mossi's possess a soil classification system whose usefulness have been formally acknowledged. Mossi farmers identify various types of soil in in terms of texture, color, consistency, geographical location, fertility, and land drainage. This classification allows them to establish four main categories with a specific crop corresponding to each of them.

Lesson: Mossi soil classification allows a better understanding of options for the local farmers and of the local ecosystem.

Source: Basga E. DIALLA ( IK Monitor 1 (3) 1993 CIRAN ) ; and : Projet PATECORE, BP 271, Kongoussi, Tél. 45-71-43, Burkina Faso : "The Mossi indigenous soil classification in Burkina Faso". External Link: CIRAN


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Ethiopia: Gebeto seeds as fertilizers

Summary: Farmers in Northern Ethiopia, especially in the Agaw Mider region, use a seed called "Gebeto" as a fertilizer. The seed which looks like a bean (with a very sour taste that is not appreciated by birds) is sown in the fields some six months before sowing time for maize, wheat and other cereals. The plant that grows is not harvested but left to dry, and becomes a natural fertilizer. The farmers would then plough their fields and sow cereals. With this soil fertilization method, production is reported to increase substantially. Another use of "gebeto" is for medical purposes. A handful of this bean cooked and taken orally every morning is used to reduce blood pressure, by the people of Northern Ethiopia.

Lesson: Traditional methods for soil fertilization are worth studying, preserving and promoting

Source: Association for the Promotion of Indigenous Knowledge (APIK) Addis Ababa University P.O. Box 1176 Addis, or contact : EHNRI@telecom.net.et


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Mozambique: Farmers supply a variety of ridging techniques

Summary: Ngare or Mhindu ridging is a technique of forming a continuos lump of elevated earth mount during cultivation. Seeds are sown on top and other crops are broadcast at random in a mixed fashion. The ridges check erosion and conserve water. Ngare ridges are built across the field to reduce the speed of rainwater and and run-off. At the same time they do not amass the water with the danger of braking the ridges. They channel excess water into grass-covered edges of the field. Studies have shown that ngare or mhindu ridging are superior to contour ridges on steep slopes. Another type of ridging is the miwundo raised bed. Raised beds are especially made for sweet potatoes to drain out excess water in wetlands cultivation. Ridging has proved to be very effective in maintaining the required water balance needed for different varieties of crops even under mixed cultivation. The plants requiring more water are grown in the lower strips where water is abundant, whereas those that need less water are grown on top of the ridge which is well drained.

Lesson: Scientists have learned from these techniques, develop them further, e.g. into "tied ridges" and disseminated them to other regions in Africa.

Source: ZIRCIK, Sadomba W.Z., The Impact of Settler Colo-nization on Indigenous Knowledge in Agriculture, Wageningen. (1999) Hagmann J. et al. 1996, in Reij C. et al. (eds.), Sustaining the soil: Indigenous soil and water conservation in Africa, Earthscan, or contact: wsadomba@africaonline.co.zw


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Tanzania: Strengths and weaknesses of the Matengo pits

Summary: The grass-fallow-tied ridge system (Matengo pits) is practiced on the steeper slopes for the cultivation of maize, beans, wheat and sweet potatoes, and sometimes tobacco, all on a rotational basis in the hilly Matengo Highlands with limited arable land under pressure of a highly concentrated and growing population. Shrubs and grass are cut and laid in rectangular rows, forming a grid over the whole area. One set of rows is laid across the slope along the contour, the other set running up and down the slope, forming pits of varying sizes of app. one square meter and around 0.3m deep. The ridges and the pits are planted with various annual crops in a complex rotational pattern. After harvest residues are buried under new ridges where there have been pits in the previous season and vice versa. Matengo fields are reported to have 70 to 80% lower run-off caused by rain than un-treated fields. This practice has been applied for over 100 years. The practice, however, is very laborious, most of the work carried by women, it cannot be mechanized.

Lesson: This system poses a challenge to development practitioners and farmers to jointly develop a farming practice that is based on the Matengo pits, has the same soil conservation effect and reduces the labour demand on women.

Source: Rutatora, D.F. (IK Monitor 5(2) August 1997)


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Burkina Faso: Mixed Cropping techniques

Summary: In Aribinda and in most other areas of Burkina Faso with limited precipitation, farmers seek optimal crop yield by growing both long and short growth cycle crops on the same plot, such as millet and sorghum. This practice allows spreading risk over a large number of varieties and therefore increasing possibilities for success. Millet seeds of various cycles are mixed and sowed in the same plot, and harvesting is performed during the staggered ripening period. Combining growing cycles allows these farmers to insure a certain food security in reducing risks linked to fluctuation in water precipitation.

Lesson: This risk reduction strategy, while useful to ensure household food security, is incompatible with the planting of most commercial seeds and should be carefully re-assessed prior to introducing new varieties. This risk reduction strategy, while useful to ensure household food security, is incompatible with the planting of most commercial seeds and should be carefully re-assessed prior to introducing new varieties.

Source: " L'ombre du mil : un système agropastoral sahélien en Aribinda ( Burkina Faso) ", Dominique GUILLAUD, Editions de l'ORSTOM, Collection A travers Champs , Paris, 1993.

 


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Cameroon: The use of organic fertilizer

Summary: Foulbe farmers from Garoua in the North Province of Cameroon have been emulating a soil fertilization technique, which originated in neighboring Republic of Chad. They use cattle horns for soil fertilization in fruit tree orchards and farms. A set of two horns from freshly slaughtered cattle are placed on the ground at distances ranging 40 to 75 centimeters from the tree. The horns attract certain insects which, while feeding on them, fertilize the soil with their secretions. Yields in farms and orchards, where this technology has been applied, have increased by 75%, as confirmed by the Agronomy Research Station of Garoua.

Lesson: Agricultural extension should promote the use of certain organic manure, developed and produced by local communities, and successfully transferred from one country to another.

Source: Mballa, A. C/O CIKO, P. O. BOX 8437, YAOUNDE, CAMEROON, or contact: ngwasiri@camnet.cm Rwanda: Transfer of the Washambaa agricultural system to Rwanda adaptation and retransfer.

 


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Rwanda: Transfer of the Washambaa agricultural system 

Summary: The Washambaa of the Usambara Mountains in Tanzania had developed a land use system emulating the climax vegetation of the deciduous natural forest a multi-story integrating annuals and perennials on the same plot. The principles were transferred to Nyabisindu, Rwanda in a GTZ assisted project; special multipurpose contour bunds with trees shrubs and grasses were added to the system and re-transferred to the Washambaa once dense population and demand for firewood had depleted the soil cover.

Lesson: Emulation of natural vegetation is a valid approach to soil conservation; transferring and adding elements to address new problems adds value to the original land use system.

Source: GTZ various reports 1980 - 1990, or contact rwoytek@worldbank.org

 


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Tanzania: Weather forecasting based on ecology and meteorology 

Summary: Maasai alternate the use of their natural grassland according to seasons. This requires a timely decision on when and where to move next. They predict droughts as well as weather related diseases by watching the movements of celestial bodies in combination with observing the date of emergence of certain plant species (e.g. Ole Kitolya). Such "early warning signals" of an approaching environmental disaster are used to determine any preventive measures, prepare for mitigation and de-cide on the course of the community in using the natural resources. Similarly, estimates of animal fertility can be drawn from such forecasts with implication on stocking rates and density. This knowledge is little researched so far.

Lesson: Traditional expertise in astronomy and weather forecasting in combination with conventional agricultural meteorology could enhance local forecasts on harvests and food security.

Source: MARECIK N. Ole-Lengisugi; F. Ole-Ikayo, or contact multicho@yako.habari.co.tz

 


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Zimbabwe: Anthill soil increases soil fertility

Summary: Owing to shortage of land and financial resources, small-scale farmers in Zimbabwe improve poor agricultural land by spreading anthill soils in the field. Before planting, soil is dug from the termite mounds, evenly spread, and mixed with the sandy soils. White ants are regarded as beneficial insects and protected because they provide the farmers with cheap natural fertilizer. When applying the soil, farmers ensure that the anthills are not destroyed in order to rely on them again after some years of recovery. The productivity of the land is reported as having increased.

Lesson: Because of specific constraints farmers develop solutions relying on local resource.

Source: ZIRCIK, Institute of Environ-mental Studies (University of Zimbabwe), or contact: wsadomba@africaonline.co.zw


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Cameroon: Long term storage of cassava

Summary: The Balong of Cameroon, have a traditional technology of processing cassava (Manihot esculenta) into a product called Kumkum that can be preserved for up to five years. Freshly harvested roots are peeled, washed and steeped in water and left to stand for three to five days during which natural fermentation takes place and the tuberous roots are softened. They are removed and ground into a fine paste, then placed in a cane basket and covered with plantain leaves. Heavy objects such as stones are piled on the pulp to drain off excess liquor. Some 200-300 grams are hand-molded into round balls and placed on a platform which is hung over the hearth to dry out gradually. Due to constant fire at the site, the balls gradually are coated with smoke. During the storage period, which varies from one to five years, the product is hardly ever attacked by pests or disease. When needed, the black coating on the balls is scraped off. They are then re-pounded into fine flour, which is reconstituted with hot water into dough, and eaten with soup or vegetable stew.

Lesson: Traditional methods of storage can be explored for disaster preparedness.

Source: Dr. Festus Numfor; CIKO, or contact: ngwasiri@camnet.cm

 


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Nigeria: A natural refrigeration system

Summary: An inventor from northern Nigeria (Jigawa State) has developed an efficient electricity-free, "pot-in-pot" cooling system, that is affordable for local communities, and now widely used by them. The system consists of two different-sized earthenware pots, one inside the other. The space between them is filled with water-retentive sand. Perishable food such as eggplants, okra and tomatoes, is placed in the smaller pot and covered with a cloth. The pots are placed in a dry, ventilated spot and the sand is periodically watered. As the water in the sand evaporates into the drier air outside, it cools the pots and their contents. Keeping eggplants fresh for a month, instead of three days, and tomatoes and pepper for more than three weeks, has helped farmers avoid having to sell their produce immediately, and has reduced diseases caused by rotting food. This has resulted in an increase in farmers' incomes, slowing the movement of population from country to city in northern Nigeria. The inventor estimates th at three-quarters of the rural families in Jigawa State now use his pots. In addition, women are considered the biggest beneficiaries of this invention. Indeed, women selling fruits and vegetables from their homes could earn an income, and girls who were sent to sell food before it spoiled can now go to school.

Lesson: Simple, locally developed technologies adapted to their environment, are affordable for local communities, and may contribute to improving their lives.

Source: Financial Times, Monday October 9, 2000 (Adapted from the article: Staying cool naturally, by Carola Hoyos). External Link: The Rolex Award For Enterprise - Laureates 2000, or contact: nayachi@worldbank.org

 


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Cameroon: Sorghum stalks as a source of salt

Summary: Northern Cameroon is a leading cattle producing region, where salt is in very high demand. In 1994, after the devaluation of the cfa franc, the price of salt increased by 400%, and since then its supply has been fluctuating, causing periodic price hikes. To cope with this situation, the Moundang and Toupouri people who live in the Mayo-Kebbi District in the Northern Province of Cameroon, have developed a technology to make salt from dry stalks of sorghum plants. Prior to this, sorghum stalks did not serve any useful purpose. In this case, the stalks are gathered and burned, and the remaining ash is sieved and boiled in water until it becomes whitish. After cooling, the liquid is left to coagulate. At that stage, it is ready for consumption as a substitute for salt. Only two other inputs, namely, fire and water, are needed for the processing. This kind of salt, called "garlaka", is produced by women who are said to earn up to 250.000 cfa francs per year in selling it

Lesson: Knowing the various uses of underutilized plants may allow to cope with some goods shortages and can help generate income for rural communities

Source:Zingno, P.R. C/O CIKO, P. O. BOX 8437, YAOUNDE, CAMEROON or contact: ngwasiri@camnet.cm

 


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Congo Palm wine techniques from the 16th century 

Lesson: In combining traditional practices with modern technology, development organizations can make the most of local know-how

Source: J. J. Magloire BAZABANA: Groupe de Recherche et d'Expertise sur le Développement des Savoir-faire Locaux en Afrique, (Montpellier, France), or contact: Nguala.Luzietoso@Wanadoo.


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Congo: Migrants introduce labor saving cassava processing technology

Summary: The Kongo and Teke grind cassava pulp to produce kwangas (also called chikwangue, or cassava bread). Traditionally, they use special combs, which implies a long and cumbersome process. Migrant women living in the city of Kinshasa replaced the combing method by a sieving one, saving substantial time and reducing the physical effort. When migrants moved back from Kinshasa to their country of origin (Congo-Brazzaville) they transferred the practice there, where it was adopted. The method had been previously adopted by the inhabitants of Kinshasa as well.

Lesson: Direct interactions between migrants and local people may lead to information sharing, and should be promoted

Source: Luzietoso Nguala, Bazabana Jean Jacques Magloire, Groupe de Recherche et d'Expertise sur le Développement des Savoir-faire Locaux en Afrique, (Montpellier, France); and ORSTOM reports, or contact: Nguala.Luzietoso@Wanadoo.Fr

 


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Cameroon: Ethno-veterinary practices 

Summary: In the Northwestern province of Cameroon ethno-veterinarians and the staff of the Ministry for Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries, and the Institute for Animal Research, joined forces in cooperation with Heifer Project International (HPI). The Ethno-veterinary Medicine/Fulani Live-stock Development Project addresses the problem of expensive and erratic supply of veterinary drugs and services to seek a sustainable way of improving animal health in the region by a com-plementary utilization of indigenous and orthodox veterinary medicines. Benefits are a reduction of dependency on imported veterinary drugs and supplies, the possibility of discovering new drugs and the use of natural drugs with fewer side effects. The communication and contacts between livestock owners and veterinarians have improved; Cameroon's first association of traditional veterinarians was founded and active networking among indigenous practitioners and orthodox animal health care specialists was promoted. Some traditional herbal treatments, a taxonomy of active plants and food and dairy processing practices were documented

Lesson: Building on indigenous knowledge not only assists in the achievement of technical objectives but improves communication between beneficiaries, traditional and modern experts and the exchange and transfer of knowledge

Source: Toyang, N. J.et al. Ethno-veterinary medicine practices in the Northwest Province of Cameroon (IK Monitor 3 (3)1995)



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Tanzania: Practices ensuring reproductive health of animals

Lesson: Pastoralists methods are a cost effective means to control stocking rates and densities with a potential to control overgrazing.

Source: MARECIK, N. Ole-Lengisugi, (1998) Munyua et. al, or contact: multicho@yako.habari.co.tz

 


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Nepal: Communities ensure transparency in the distribution of food aid

Summary: To ensure that food aid reaches the intended population, a Food for Work program of the Nepalese government assisted by GTZ, consulted with the villagers. It was jointly determined that using local distributors and community-based supervision would be the most appropriate way to distribute food aid deliveries. Instead of using covered trucks, bullock carts were used for transportation. This approach yielded various benefits. Hiring bullock carts provided additional income for rural communities as opposed to using city based truck companies. The load of a bullock cart is a local standard, and the amounts delivered easily calculated by the people of the community. Any missing portion could easily be estimated publicly and any loss or inappropriate allocation could be questioned in public. Other WFP programs in the country have eventually adopted this approach.

Lesson: Using local standards and means of transport for bulk load deliveries of rice in a food for work program facilitates transparent delivery of staple and brings about good governance on the local level

Source: Linking Food Relief and Development - A Matter of Good Governance, Upadhyaya K. and Beier, M., Katmandu 1993

Contact: Beier.Kirchner@t-online.de



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Tanzania: Veterinary practices for the prevention of disease

Summary: Pastoralist Maasai have developed their own strategies to prevent and treat contagious livestock diseases such as Rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuro-pneumonia (CBPP), Anthrax / black leg, Foot and Mouth Disease, Brucellosis, among many others. Medicinal plants and plant preparations are used as disinfectants, anesthetics, styptics, anti-inflammatory, pyretics, and appetizers and as anti-microbial agents. Routing of herds and separation of sick animals are other elements of such strategies, based on early indications of diseases. Surgical techniques include dislocation correction, compound fracture bone setting, castration, obstetrical operations, dental correction, opening (and closing) of artery orifices, removing defected eyes, etc.

Lesson: Traditional veterinary practices provide a low cost approach to livestock hygiene and maintenance of healthy stock.

Source: MARECIK, N. Ole-Lengisugi, (1998), or contact: multicho@yako.habari.co.tz

 


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Benin: Cost effective cheese making techniques

Summary: In Benin, many families earn their living making cheese. The Beninois cheese is sold domestically and in neighboring Niger. In addition to fresh milk and Caloptropis porcera leaves some equipment is needed. This consists of a saucepan (preferably in terra cotta), a sieve (0.5 mm), some fine linen, a gas range or other source of heat, a wooden ladle, and a wooden mortar and pestle.

Lesson: This method of making cheese can be integrated into the operations of mini dairies and cheese making factories. As a source of additional income, cheese making can be useful to local communities when there is a seasonal surplus of milk. This cheese is considered a good source of protein

Source: SIATA, Dr. Abel

Contact: gtz.siata@fasonet.bf

 


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Burkina Faso: Yogurt making Process 

Summary: Akpan is the name of a maize-based yogurt. The processing method for this yogurt originated in Benin and has been transferred successfully to Burkina Faso, as part of the AVAL project ("Action de valorisation des savoir-faire agroalimentaires locaux en Afrique de l’Ouest") . A women group involved in the restaurant business and food-processing, the Ri-Noodo, also called "les bons plats ' (the good food), based in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) started making yogurt using the method. This new product which had a high market acceptability allowed the women-group to expand its activities. The approach used by the project AVAL was to test the new product in the country receiving the know-how; to train one person from the receiving country; to organize know-how transmission sessions once the trainee went back to his country; and to encourage and support know-how divulgence in the country by those women who acquired it.

Lesson: Market research using a larger sample of consummers should be performed before engaging in the transfer of local know-how.

Source: Paul BOM KONDE, Groupe de Recherche et d’Expertise sur le Développement des Savoir-faire Locaux en Afrique, (Montpellier, France).

Contact: Nguala.Luzietoso@Wanadoo.

 


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Zimbabwe: Sun drying of fruits, vegetables and edible insects

Summary: Sun drying of food is usually done in two main ways. One method (commonly used for vegetables) is to immerse the fresh vegetables in salty boiling water for a few minutes to avoid nutrient loss. The vegetables are then dried in the sun for about three days and stored in a safe dry place. This method is also applied for drying caterpillars, termites, white ants and other edible insects. Another method is to directly spread the food in the sun. The food is first salted if there is danger of decaying during the drying process as in the case of mushroom or tomatoes. Food drying is an important activity for women as they bear responsibility for food preparation even during winter times and the dry seasons.

Lesson: Sun drying is an affordable technology requiring little or no intervention under most conditions

Source: Farm Information Network.

 


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A natural refrigeration system developed locally uses the appropriate technology in the right environment

Summary: An inventor from northern Nigeria (Jigawa State) has developed an efficient electricity-free, "pot-in-pot" cooling system, that is affordable for local communities, and now widely used by them. The system consists of two different-sized earthenware pots, one inside the other. The space between them is filled with water-retentive sand. Perishable food such as eggplants, okra and tomatoes, is placed in the smaller pot and covered with a cloth. The pots are placed in a dry, ventilated spot and the sand is periodically watered. As the water in the sand evaporates into the drier air outside, it cools the pots and their contents. Keeping eggplants fresh for a month, instead of three days, and tomatoes and pepper for more than three weeks, has helped farmers avoid having to sell their produce immediately, and has reduced diseases caused by rotting food. This has resulted in an increase in farmers' incomes, slowing the movement of population from country to city in northern Nigeria. The inventor estimates that three-quarters of the rural families in Jigawa State now use his pots. In addition, women are considered the biggest beneficiaries of this invention. Indeed, women selling fruits and vegetables from their homes could earn an income, and girls who were sent to sell food before it spoiled can now go to school.

Lesson: Simple, locally developed technologies adapted to their environment, are affordable for local communities, and may contribute to improving their lives.

Source: Financial Times, Monday October 9, 2000 (Adapted from the article: Staying cool naturally, by Carola Hoyos).

External Link: The Rolex Award For Enterprise - Laureates 2000

Contact: nayachi@worldbank.org

 


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Tanzania: Producing wine from honey for cultural and ritual purposes is an important activity for women in Maasai society.

Summary: A "Enaisho Olotorok" (a local brew made of bee honey) is of great symbolic importance to the Maasai. It is directly related to those rituals and ceremonies that are held most sacred. "Enaisho Olotorok" is made only for ceremonial purposes and is not sold commercially or brewed to drink recreationally. It is brewed for the most significant ceremonies in Maasai culture, such as psycho-somatic prayers, circumcision, marriage and age-set promotion. Women are the specialists to per-form the brewing process. The importance of the rituals and ceremonies for which Enaisho Olotorok is produced indicates the importance of the role of women in the community.

Lesson: Understanding the role of women in Maasai ceremonies is central to understand their role in Maasai society.

Source: MARECIK N. Ole-Lengisugi; F. Ole-Ikayo

Contact: multicho@yako.habari.co.tz


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Global Addresses of IK Centers


Addresses of IK Centers (PDF)

Link to the Addresses of Other IK Centers and CIRAN's IK-Pages
Nuffic/CIRAN IK Development Monitor and Addresses of Other IK Centers


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Bank Sources

Indigenous Knowledge for Development Link to the Homepage of the Indigenous Knowledge for Development Program of the Africa Region

Database of Indigenous Knowledge and Practices Link to the Database of Practices of the Indigenous Knowledge for Development Program of the Africa Region

IK Notes Newsletter Link to the IK Notes of the Indigenous Knowledge for Development Program of the Africa Region

An Introduction to the
Microfinance Institutions Contact List

External Sources

Register for Best Practices in Indigenous Knowledge Link to the database of Best Practices of UNESCO

Nuffic/CIRAN IK Development Monitor and Addresses of Other IK Centers Link to the Addresses of Other IK Centers and CIRAN's IK-Pages

 Please send feedback or comments to rwoytek@worldbank.org

Should you know of other indigenous knowledge practices that have helped or may help to improve Bank programs, please share them with us. We will enter your contribution into the IK-Database.

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Bank Projects with IK

UP Sodic Lands Reclamation Project in India
Agricultural production in Uttar Pradesh (UP) declined dramatically in the 1980s. Inappropriate irrigation practices salinated soils, brown plant hoppers destroyed 40% - 60% of paddy and wheat crops. The state agricultural extension service's land reclamation campaigns were unsuccessful. In 1993, the UP Land Development Corporation (UPLDC) launched a farmer driven Sodic Lands Reclamation Project (SLRP), supported by the Bank. Farmers created local site implementation committees (SICs) and self help groups (SHGs) and reclaimed over 68,000 hectares belonging to 247,000 families. Women SHGs generated income with poultry farming and horticulture. Farmers built on traditional knowledge: they reclaimed the land through gypsum application, bunding, irrigating, leaching and plowing, reduced plant hopper destruction to less than 5% with Neem extracts, green manure and rice husks and improved soil fertility with multi-cropping, composting and animal care. Wheat and paddy yields doubled. Incomes rose by 60% between 1993-2000. Farmers' annual savings grew from Rs. 5,000 to Rs. 25,000. These practices were institutionalized and widely disseminated through a local farmers school. Today, the state has begun to hand over training and extension services to local farmers' schools, which reach more than 7,200 farmers in 65 villages beyond the project area.
Full report: PAD


Agricultural Extension Program Project (02)

The National Agricultural Advisory Services Project, will assist poor farmers in Uganda, in becoming aware, and able to adopt improved technology, and management practices in their farming enterprises, to enhance productivity, economic welfare, and sustainability of farming operations. The components will:
1) provide agricultural advisory services, based on local farming knowledge, which should include a program orientation, and group mobilization for farmers participatory planning, farm advisory services, information, and communications, including training assistance;
2) foster linkages among farmers, advisers, and researchers, in addition to links between farmers, and markets, financing contract researchers to develop new technologies, and market adaptation, featuring on-farm technology development, market linkage development, and, expertise to address District, regional, or countrywide technology as agreed by farmer institutions;
3) develop a regulatory framework, by setting standards for qualification, and performance, including technical auditing of service providers;
4) finance training to service providers, to establish a program for assistance in private sector institutional development, to include national representatives, institutions, and public extension staff; and,
5) provide program management, and monitoring, facilitating financial management, auditing, reporting, and management information systems.

Full Report: PAD



Agricultural Research and Training Project (02)

The Second Agricultural Research and Training Project (ARTP II) seeks to a) increase the efficiency and productivity of the dominant crop, livestock, fisheries, and forestry farming systems of Uganda; b) increase farm household income and improve family welfare; and c) enhance the management of natural resources for the protection of the environment. There are three project components. 1) Technology development and adaptation will finance: adaptive research and development activities to address specific production constraints and opportunities; new priorities to respond to serious emerging problems identified in subsequent annual assessment; and establishment of an Agricultural Research and Development Fund to support a competitive research grants scheme. 2) Outreach, extension, and technology dissemination will give priority to the development and transfer of technology embedded in traditional knowledge to address actual constraints of the dominant production systems of Uganda. It will also support demand-driven, client-oriented research and promote active participation of stakeholders in research planning, implementation, and beneficiary impact assessment. 3) Institutional development will support the transformation of National Agriculture Research Organization into a research and development institution and strengthen its capacity to monitor, evaluate, and determine economic impact of improved technologies.

Full Report: PAD




National Agricultural Research Project (NARP 02)

The objectives of the National Agricultural Research Project - Phase II (NARP II) are to contribute to food security, poverty alleviation, and environmental protection by raising agricultural productivity and incomes, particularly those of women and small farmers, on a sustained basis. The project consists of three main components: a) institution building-emphasis on enhanced research management, financial management, human resource development, and an upgraded information system; b)research program implementation decentralized to centers progressively given authority and responsibility for extension outreach; and c) a seeds program- a pilot scheme to improve the quality, quantity, and delivery of basic and commercial seeds.

Full Report: PID



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IK Contribution Format

Should you know of other indigenous knowledge practices that have helped or may help to improve Bank programs, please share them with us. We will enter your contribution into the IK-Database.

You could structure your contribution by using the following format:  

1. Country:Where is the practice applied (country and location)?

2. Domain:

In which sector is the practice applied (agriculture, health, social development etc.)?

3. Technology:

What technology (e.g. soil erosion control, childcare, institutional development etc.)?

4. Bearers of Knowledge:

By whom is the practice applied (e.g. Washambaa, local healers, women's group of a given village etc.)?

5. Source: Where can we inquire further?

 Primary provider information (probably yourself or your institution)

Secondary providers of information

Add references to literature, web sites, names of individuals or organizations that can corroborate the practice.

Include addresses of primary and secondary providers of information.

6. Descriptive headline of practice:

One to two lines capturing the main features of a practice.

7. Summary:

Describe the main features of the practice and explain (not more than 200 words).

8. Lessons:

Answer three key questions related to efficacy and impact of the practice.

 - Why it is important for the local community?

- Why might it be beneficial to other communities?

 - Why should development organizations learn more about this practice?

9. Methods used to capture information:

How was the practice identified, recorded and documented?

          

NB: The IK database is an open, on-line resource for information on indigenous knowledge practices. The database acts as a referral system and does not disclose the technical details of practices or applications. Most practices in the database have been reported elsewhere in publicly accessible information sources. As is the principle of a referral database the provider of information could be asked by users of the database to provide further information or pointers as regards details of the practice. It is to the discretion of the provider of information and the inquirer to negotiate the terms of the exchange of knowledge. No information provided will be made public without the consent of the provider.

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